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Topic:Project Failure Analysis (British Petroleum Deepwater Horizon Accident)

topic explain : when the gulf of Mexico oil spill accident happen , for some reason , the company fail to manage it , led the project failure.

please read the file I uploaded ,I have make a outline and already write something ,you just help me finish yellow color part . Make the article more logic .(do not forget provide references)

if you need it , I also provide a example (but different topic) you may modeled .

 


Outline

Problem Definition

1.Confusion of organization management

2.Overlook of project process change

3.Overlook of conflict

4.Cultural diversity

Root Cause Analysis

1.Cause of organization confusion

2.Cause of change overlook

3.Cause of conflict overlook

4.Cause of culture

Possible Solutions

1.Solution for organization management (

rig crew management ,senior management)

2.Solution for change management

3.Solution for conflict management

4.Solution for cultural diversity

Executive Summary

This paper aims to identify project problems, and analyze the root reasons of disaster occurring as well as come up with its possible solutions, lastly, we will put forward feasible proposal and project plan.

Introduction

The Deepwater Horizon drilling rig explosion on April 20, 2010, as one of the worst environmental disasters in the history of the petroleum industry, killed 11 inhabitants on the rig and injured 17 people on the day of disaster. Due to the subsequent oil spill after explosion, polluting more the 88,000 square miles of local beaches and estuaries, and its incalculable damage had affected local tourism and fishing industries as well as many kinds of birds and marine animals’ survival and reproduction in and around the Gulf of Mexico (Lehner and Deans, 2010). Also, the cost of oil spill has been reached more than $40 billion, including the victim compensation fund of $20 billion (Fountain and Matthrew, 2010).

After the explosion, a joint team composed of Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement (“BOEMRE”) and the United States Coast Guard started to investigate this explosion, which aimed to identify the causes of the Macondo blowout. At the same time, BP, an international technology company manufacturing and servicing rig-based products, as the designated operator of this project, had the foundational responsibility for this Macondo blowout. Transocean, the proprietor of the Deepwater Horizon, had the responsibility to conduct safe operations and ensure personnel safety. Halliburton, as a contractor to BP, also had the responsibility to monitor the good progress of this project.

In January 2011, through the subsequent investigation by the joint team, they put forward that there are many problems exist in this project, such as the confusion of organization management, lack of effective communication, technical flaws, overlook of project process change and conflict, which caused the occurrence of this environmental disaster to large degree.

Problems definition

According to the investigation of the joint team. they found that BP had their own complete, company-wide methods to manage the project named the Operating Management System (“OMS”), addressing a series of potential problems occurring, such as, organization management problems, conflicts problems, procedure change, communication problems, lack of motivation, technical problems like drilling operations. However, this system did not play its due role, I think the main problems were as follows.

1. Confusion of organization management

There are many problems in managing its staff, especially the management of cig crew, and the training for staff of each department was very confused. According to the BOEMRE report (2011, p.128), the training programs that the BP and the Transocean provide to their staffs all lacked enough well controlling issues to cope with the emergency situations. Moreover, some staffs did not have sufficient relevant experience about this field and they lacked the professional knowledge, especially did not have experienced enough crew, the BP did not emphases this factor. In addition, the investigation of joint team put forward that this project lacked the specified, documented procedure and feedback for the negative test in the BP or Transocean documents, also, it lacked the interpretation of guidance in the industry regulations (BOEMRE report 2011, P.204). Lastly, we think that the most point is the recording data is not very accurate, it lacked the reference value.

2. Failure to follow the management of change (MOC) processes

Change management, as part of risk management, in order to better cope with it, BP developed an integrated management of change (MOC) process, which documented, evaluate, communicate and coped with changes (BOEMRE report 2011, P.179 and 192). The MOC process as part of risk management, the BP failed to follow this process, which did not take reasonable mitigation plan before the change happened as well as take reasonable contingency plan when the change or accidents happened.

3. Overlook of project conflict

According to the BOEMRE report (2011, p. 189), they found that the first conflict is the Transocean personnel’s rewarding system, staffs have different opinions about this rewarding system. The second conflict is the choice of productivity and safety, it seems that BP paid more attention to the production rather than safety.

Root cause analysis

1. Cause of organization confusion

In the part of problem definition, we found that the first problem is the lack of training programs in organization management, this part lead to the occurrence of this explosion later to large degree. Many staffs, especially the rig crew, did not have the regular operation process and safety awareness because company lacked these factors of cultivation and training in their daily time. For example, according to BOEMRE report (2011, p. 128), they found that the flammable gas would dispersed beyond the hazardous areas, at the same time, the rig crew did not well classify some equipment, therefore, this unclassified equipment had a fair chance of sparking an explosion. In addition, the BP did not document the process in details and did not consider to develop a standardized procedure with specific interpretation guidance. If the BP develop this interpretation guidance and then provided to the rig crew, some problems would be selected and detected, and the blowout would be averted. Furthermore, the BP did not consider a regulation in regard to uncontrolled factors, only paid more attention to the controlled factors (BOEMRE report 2011, P.204). If some uncontrollable incidents occurred, they cannot offer any visible solutions. In addition, according to the investigation, they found that the data from the rig were not the real-time data because there was no continuous monitoring of those stored data, which caused that they did not realize the occurrence of the failure and took appropriate control actions.

2. Cause of change overlook

In part of problem definition, we had known that BP developed an integrated management of change (MOC) process in this project. however, they did not use MOC to manage some important changes in continuously changeable drilling operations. For example, BP made some casing design changes, while the following operation did not follow this design changes. Other changes like rig procedure changes, they did not consider these changes, and they made some important decisions without consideration of MOC process. In addition, the other change is personal changes, according to investigation, they found that BP had little consideration to change the project leader, their current leader Sepulvado had limited ability in controlling process.

Reference

Fountain H, Wald Matthew L. BP says leak may be closer to a solution. on-line. New York Times, http://www.nytimes.com/2010/05/ 13/us/13spill.html; 2010.

Lehner P, Deans B. In: Deep water: the anatomy of a disaster, the fate of the gulf, and ending our oil addiction. Experiment Publishing; 2010.

Report regarding the causes of the April 20, 2010 Macondo well blowout. The Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation, and Enforcement. September 14

BP report (2010) Deepwater Horizon accident investigation report. British Petroleum

Executive Summary

Airbus is an important airlines company in the world and its product Airbus A380 is

the largest passenger aircraft in recent years. The Airbus A380 project is designed to

against American Boeing aircraft. However, there are several issues happened during

the implementation of the Airbus A380 project. This report starts with the problem

definition of technology, communication, culture, and management. Moreover, after

the problem definition is the analysis of issues. The following part after the root cause

analysis is the possibility of solutions and makes a project proposal, and project plan

with SWOT and stakeholders analysis. At the end of this report for a conclusion is

going to combine with all analysis and will make recommends for this project.

The various obstacles like cultural barriers, negative management, and lack of

communication have been addressed in this report. The report has also provided

solutions and intends to tackle these obstacles.

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1.Introduction

Airbus A380, which is the most complex aircraft in recent years with two full desks

and the space for carrying 850 passengers. A380 is the largest passenger aircraft and

plays a major role in the aerospace industry. There were 4 countries such as Germany,

Span, England, and France joined Airbus 380 projects. Throughout the cooperation

between these countries, this project was delivered profitable in the end. However,

there were several issues and failure decisions during the implementation and

production route. The main issues which we will address in this report are the gap of

technology problem, the difficulties of communication, the differences of culture

between countries, and management problem. These problems caused the Airbus

A380 program delayed and over budget.

2.Problem Definition

Besides the negative influences of the projects themselves, the project unfinished

time occasioned serious social problems. Here, we will identify the problems and

explain them.

2.1!Delay!the!schedule!of!the!project! !

Airbus A380 construction will ease the traffic pressure, and Airbus A380 is the most

aircraft flying today. However, delivery of Airbus A380 delayed leads to not improve

the traffic problems. For example, originally schedule for delivery of this project in

2006. However, entry service of the aircraft was delayed by almost two years. Airbus

announced the first delay in 2005 and noticed other aircraft companies that deliveries

would be delayed for six months because of the difficulties of production speed. And

in June 2006, Airbus announced the additional delay that deliveries would be delayed

by six to seven months. In October 2006, new Airbus CEO Christian Streiff

announced a third delay. The delay increased the earnings shortfall projected by

Airbus through 2010 to 4.8 billion.

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!

2.2!Snowballing!costs!and!over!budget!

Airbus A380 construction delay causes a significant economic loss. Such as the

previous example, the project was finished after four years of delays. The project

manager focuses on the atmosphere in different parts of the organization rather than

how to build the aircraft in the best way. Overly aggressive schedule caused the time

pressure of the schedule. Moreover, at the end of this project was several billion over

budget. Moreover, Airbus A380 construction generally belongs to the government

investment. The government finance deficit could affect social welfare programs.

2.3!HighAlevel!Resignation!and!employee!turnover!

The deliveries delay several times and the incorrect decision making during the

project caused a 26 percent drops in the share price of Airbus’ parent. EADS. The

huge financial burden leads to the employees turnover and the high-level managers

punished. For instant, these issues caused the departure of EADS CEO Noël Forgeard,

Airbus CEO Gustav Humbert, and A380 programmer manager Charles Champion.

2.4!Several!companies!had!to!cancel!order!forms!and!be!implicated.!

Related companies were directly or indirectly involved in this project delayed. For

example, Air Transport Word states Malaysia Airlines and International Lease

Finance Corporation (ILFC) canceled the order forms because of the deliveries delay.

Moreover, in November 2006, FedEx canceled 10 A380-800F aircraft order forms

and steering Boeing ordered 15 Boeing 777-200 Freighters. UPS announced they

were considered to cancel 10 A380 aircrafts in March 2007.

3. Root Cause Analysis

Although this project was successful in the end, Airbus A380 project was delayed and

over budget. It had several issues during the implementation and production phase to
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result in the plan unfinished on time. There are 4 main reasons for this project:

communication, technology, culture, and individual. The fish-bone diagram will

show the possible roots, and each reason will be explained deeply as follows:

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Lack!of!communication!

!
! ! ! ! ! ! ! Language! !
! !
! ! ! ! Ineffective! !
! ! communication!
!

The! ! different! ! requirements! !

of!product!

! ! ! !
! ! ! Lack! ! of! ! technology! ! ! ! ! !
! ! ! ! verification!
!

! ! ! ! ! Mode!of!fixed!thinking!

!
! ! Bias!
!
Time!difference!

!

!Wrong!decision!
!
!Lack!of!management!capacity!
! !
! ! ! Overconfident!
!

3.1!Communication! !

Ineffective communication and lack of communication are the first primary problem
to lead the project delay.! All! departments! in! Organizational! structure! are! too!

independent.! It! led! to! reducing! communication! opportunity.! A380! manufacturing!

for! the! global! tender! parts! production! including! over! 40!

countries!and!hundreds!of!manufacturers.!Each!aspect!of!Airbus!is!independent! and!

different! work,! but! if! one! part! existed! a! little! error,! it! will! affect! the! entire!

project!chain!and!delivery!time.!The!four!main!countries!were!allocated!different! task,!

and! they! have! their! own! independent! supplier! of! technical! personnel,! accounting,!

legal! adviser,! which! led! to! difficult! to! carry! out! effective! communication! between!

members! of! different! work! even! if! under! the! same! project.! Firstly,! it! led! to!

inefficient! communication! and! the! project! extension! of!

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the!development! cycle.! Secondly,! it! also! restricts! technological! communication,!

so!that!engineers!in!different!countries!even!use!incompatible!software.!

3.2!Individual!

As for the individual aspect, wrong decision and overconfident were all the frequent

weaknesses of the leaders, which result in the project facing many difficulties in the

implementation stage of the Airbus A380 project. In fact, for the cultural side, a

project manager should more effectively opt team members that match both the team

culture, the project, roles and responsibilities when he or she better to understand the

human nature and personalities of these individuals. However, there is a real story:

the project manager of Airbus A380 attempted to move the German designers on to

the same CAD system as the French, however, the manager did not consider the

cross-culture problem. It led the manager met a wall of resistance and the designers

had a conflict when they designed the aircraft. Besides, this issue led to losing his job

at a later time. In addition, for the technology field, the project manager believed that

electrical system designed in Germany would be compatible with the air-frame

components designed in France. However, he did not consider that CATIA version 4

which Germany used was not matched with version 5 which France used. This issue

caused the project delay and engineers needed to design the electrical system again.

Failure management from project managers will cause project delay, over budget, or

a fail the project. Project managers have to manage project team members effectively.

3.3!Culture!

The third main problem comes from the different culture. At first, Airbus A380

project was implemented by four countries. Different cultural background brings the

conflict of communication and lack of interactivity. Multiple languages and time

difference will produce risks when they transform some important information to

other countries. In addition, narrow-mind thinking of different units set up a culture

within the organization, which led to isolation among groups. Therefore, there was no

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effective communication between project teams and numerous processes and

exercises were unchallenged.

According to the reading from the course, culture is a fuzzy set of attitudes, beliefs,

behavioral norms, and basic assumption and values that are shared by group of

people, and that influence each members’ behavior and his/her interpretations of the

meaning of other people’s behavior. In Airbus A380 project case, in the early period,

European governments cooperated all aerospace industries in every country in

Europe to compete with the US based Boeing Commercial Aircraft Company.

Because of their different backgrounds, different parts of the organization inherit

different corporate cultures, management styles and systems. The cultural differences

could be caused serious irreversible consequences for Airbus A380, even if only a

little difference could be still deeply entrenched. The personal rivalries and national

pride from project team members caused the project implementation difficulties and

delay the project schedule.

3.4!Technology!

The fourth main reason is about the technology field. To operate the aircraft with the

mental airframe. Engineers need to integrate the complex wiring system which

threading through the aircraft. Airbus A380 is the most complex electrical system

with 530 kilometers wires, cables and wiring harnesses weave throughout the

airframe. And more than 100,000 wires and 40,300 connectors operating 1,150

separate functions. After the first prototype completed in France, engineers found a

problem and it is not an isolated problem. After the installation of the wires, they

found out that the wires were too short even though they had been manufactured to

specification the wires and harnesses. It is hard to pull cables to make them suitable

even though cables are only a few centimeters short. Engineers realized that the

problem of short wires will influence the whole design of the airplane. In addition,

the Computer Aided Design (CAD) software which design group working on the

project was different in every country. The designers of German and Spanish had

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used CATIA version 4, however, British and French design teams had used CATIA

version 5. The difference between CATIA Vision4 and vision5 was not a simply

evolution. Vision 5 was a complete rewrite software. Unfortunately, drawings of

electrical system that Germany designed did not suitable with the air-frame

components designed in France.

4. Possible Solution

Based on the root causes analyzed before, there were some corresponding measures

to solve the problems. Each problem is provided several solutions, which are related

to communication, culture, technology and individual separately. Then sum up these

one-sided solutions to contribute to a finial systematic solution.

4.1!Solutions for communication problems

For the large multinational project, using second languages or hiring translators is

inevitable. However, in this case, it is likely misunderstanding in communication

because there are at least four languages. To reduce the probability of

misunderstanding, using a unified language like English could be a solution.

However, it does not need everyone speaking English. As long as there are no less

than two staffs that are good in English in each department, the language obstacle is

not a problem. In this way, the staffs could understand the stakeholders from other

countries and explain to their internal members. Moreover, they know more

professional knowledge than translators, so they can convey information more easily.

Language is neither the only problem of communication nor the significant problem.

Ineffective communication or lack of communication is more serious. Because the

purpose of communication is sharing information and understanding each other, how

to achieve the purpose is the key point of solving the communication problem.

Expressing ideas clearly are the basis of sharing information. Some programmers are

good at programming but do not know how to express their thoughts. This kind of
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employee could improve communication skills by practicing or joining training. In

addition to the efforts of their own, organizations could hire a supervisor to discover

and listen to their problems. Supervisors could not only provide help to the

employees that initiatively seek help, but also discover the ignored problems then

solve them. Moreover, supervisors could collect all problems, analyze the common

features and find solutions. Then they could be publicly a help manual including the

common problems and solutions to all internal members. Another responsibility of

supervisors is supervising and reminding all employees pay attention on

communication issues. If an employee makes a mistake, the supervisor could correct

it in time.

4.2!Solutions for individual problems

Individual problems also cannot be ignored, which includes both personal ability and

personal attitude. For personal ability, before start a project, it is necessary to

measure the ability of all employees. Then the managers will know their levels and

put them at the accurate positions. Another solution is training them to raise their

ability to meet the work requirement. Personal attitude is difficult to change; no

matter it is positive or negative. However, it can be controlled or limited to ensure the

attitude will not cause bad effects on the project. For example, training employees

how to relieve stress, how to work with team members, how to negotiate with

stakeholders and so on. In addition, rules and regulations are required to quantitative

all tasks. If employees cannot finish their work in time, they will be punished.

4.3!Solutions for cultural problems

Culture is another kind of language, so understanding the culture from other countries

or organizations is required. Because culture and belief are difficult to change, the

only way of avoiding cultural conflict is understanding the culture from each other.

All managers and staffs have to know the culture difference among four countries.

Therefore, it is necessary to implement a cultural training for everyone. In the
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training, all members will know the different cultures firstly, then they have to accept

the difference and know how to avoid conflict. Because the members from different

countries have to work together, if someone ignores the difference of culture or do

not know how to handle it, there will be contradictory in a team or organization. To

solve this problem, there have to make policies to avoid culture resistance and

prejudice, which include norms of behavior and punishment. If all members are asked

to follow the policies, then cultural conflicts will be reduced.

4.4!Solutions for technology problems

Technology is the core of the project, so the unmatched technology has to be solved.

To a certain extent, using unmatched technology is also a problem of lacking

communication. But if there is no communication problem, some issues may still

occur related to technology, for example, outdated technology or low production

efficiency. The solutions are not complete without communication skills and

management methods. The outdated technology from one country could be replaced

by other country’s advanced technology and low efficiency country could learn the

efficient methods from other countries. As long as they can effectively communicate

and correctly manage technology transfer and technical training, it will increase the

effectiveness of the project. Moreover, in a project, everything is important even an

electric wire or screw. Therefore all information required to be shared with each other.

Although it looks too much trouble, it will avoid mismatching technology.

4.5!The systematic solution

Summarizing all solutions above, there are two main solutions to address all issues.

One is set up a department of supervisor, which could make policies to avoid cultural

conflict, estimate ability of each organization and employee, ensure employees’ work

efficiency, support help for employees and understand stakeholder dynamics

condition. The other one is training for all level internal members. The training

includes technology coaching, communication skills, culture knowledge and so on.
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The two solutions are both benefits to the project. Only choosing one of them could

increase project efficiency. Certainly, they can be applied together, which is more

effective to optimize the project.

5 Proposal and project plan

5.1 Vision and Purpose

Airbus a380 is a large and complex project that is related to many countries,

including four countries in project planning and implementation and some other

countries in products purchasing. Meanwhile, it is also a high-tech project that

requires employees having high level technology skills in producing a product.

Therefore, it is a big challenge for the project manager to effectively and efficiently

implement the project in the expectation of all stakeholders and controlling it in the

schedule, while to ensure the quality of the airplane in security and establish good

relations among the cooperators. According to the failure experience of Airbus a380

in the past, there are some problems in terms of interpersonal communication and

leadership of project management, so some strategies should be proposed in this

aspect, in order to reduce the problems being result of chaos and ineffective human

resource management and promote the project success.

Firstly, a new structure of management should be established instead of the old one.

Division of Supervisor system and Project Manager Training system are the two core

departments should be built and added in the project system, which can be looked as

a hub of four countries communication being given a lot of vital functions in project

execution process to help project manager manage the project. Secondly, some

methodologies will be used in feasibility analysis. The methods of SWOT analysis,

stakeholder analysis, motivation, negotiation, team building, communication plan are

in order to give the reasons why the two system could be in operating.

In summary, Division of Supervisor system includes five offices: Supervision Policy
Office, Supervisor Examination Office, Supervisor Consultant Office and Customer
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Office. The staffs of this system are from four countries, including France, Germany,

Spain and the UK, and each office has its special function. The purpose of building

this system is addressing the weakness of the old organization structure. The

functions of Supervision Policy Office are collecting and finding the difference in

policies, laws and market regulations from different countries, then the

representatives from different countries do a negotiation internal to find an outcome

that be accepted by four countries work teams, and make a regulation for all project

team members as a guidance regulating the behavior of employees. Moreover, the

project manager of this office will set up the training plan for employees based on

their results of professional skills’ testing, then the employees need to do the training

to make up for their deficiencies in skills. The functions of Supervisor Examination

Office are in the following. One is to ensure every region being observed the

common policies and rules. One is checking and evaluating the career performance of

employees and collecting the employers’ requirement and feedback, after that making

an examination report to identify the issues and provide possible solutions. The

functions of Supervisor Enforcement are three. They are guiding employees to

complete their work, providing support to employees and appraising the performance

of employees. The purpose of this office is to ensure all the employees completing

their works correctly and effectively. The function of Supervisor Consultant is

providing useful suggestions and advices for all level’s internal project managers and

staffs in the entire project cycle. Meanwhile, the office also provides marketing and

information technology (IT) consultant. The function of Customer Monitoring Office

is identifying the expectations of customers and meeting the satisfaction of them to

develop the customer experience and help improving and perfecting the performance

of products.

The Project Manager Training system exists as a subordinate department of Division

of Supervisor system, which could help giving some supplementary function in

project manager training aspect of the project. Due to the particularity of the new

aircraft project, there should be some different from other or past projects, so this

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system could support the specific training for all levels’ managers, such as project

practitioner, project manager, senior project manager, project director and portfolio

executive. The project manager training is divided in 7 parts, including coaching

training, culture & political training, leadership training, conflict management training,

communication training, decision-making training and trust building training, which

are in different length of class hours. Project managers can be chosen to learn a

different class by their inspection results. This training can reduce the weaknesses of

project management in the A380 project.

Another benefit for establishing these two systems is that can reduce the expense and

the risks for outsourcing in consultation, because the outsourcing company cannot

know the project in detail. All the functions of the two systems could be beneficial

for project success in the final.

The next section also includes some professional analysis throughout some

methodologies and models of leadership. The outcomes of these analyses can be

meaningful information to guide project manager building project teams in correct

way, being corporation with stakeholders to satisfy their demands and avoiding the

potential risk to ensure achieving project success.

5.2 Methodology

In this project plan, implement two methodologies, the division of supervisor and

project manager training, to address the issues in Airbus a380 project and improve

the project rate of success. The first methodology is that provide the division of the

supervisor to address the weaknesses of organizational structure. The organization of

the division of supervisor is based on the review of Consumer Financial Protection

Bureau’s (CFPB) supervision program.

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Figure 1: Division of Supervisor

According to Figure 1, the department of supervisor includes five offices and office

of supervisor examination includes 4 regional offices in France, Germany, Spain and

UK.

5. 2.1 Office of Supervision Policy

Responsibility of Office of Supervision Policy is that collects and analysis of the

different policies, regulations and laws for different countries. Make sure the whole

decision in this project considers all laws and avoids potential risks and issues. It also

considers the factors of different markets, regions and cultures. The detail principles

of Office of Supervisor Policy as follows:

•! Collect and analyze the new policies, regulation and laws in different regions

The A380 project is a multi-national program that includes major four countries such

as France, Germany, Spanish and United Kingdom. Each country is in charge of

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different tasks within the project. The initial idea is that utilize the advantages of different

countries to improve the project rate of success. However, due to the different policies

and regulations, four countries utilize two versions of software and it directly leads to the

project delay the schedule and overrun budget. The program of German and Spanish

utilized the CATIA version 4 to continue to design and complete the process of the

project. Meanwhile, British and French updated the CATIA to version 5. Thus, the

supervisor should provide and update the important policy and regulation for the project

manager and ongoing monitor and consider the process of project follows the policy. The

possible policies in Airbus a380 project as follows:

1.! Effective communication with different groups and report the content of meeting

such as agenda and minutes of the meeting.

2.! Unifying the different tools and techniques in different countries, for example, the

different versions of software.

3.! Set up the performance standards of employees to evaluate the contributions of

each member.

•! Set up the training plan for employee

The supervisor should qualify and evaluate the performance of each employee

according to each job role. Analysis and judge the weakness and strengths of

personality to develop an improvement of the performance plan. Set up a suitable

objective and action strategy and schedule to improve work or management skills for

each employee. Moreover, the supervisor should ongoing evaluate the career

performance. Details of project manager plan in the figure 2.

5.2.2 Office of Supervisor Examinations

The office of supervisor examinations divides in four offices in four countries. It

should take responsibility to ensure each region follows the policy and rule. Check

and evaluate the career performance and collect the employer’s requirement and

feedback, rewards or new positions, to project manager.
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Identify the issues or risks in the project and generate the exanimation reports for the

department of supervisor. The details principle of examination as follows:

1.! Set up examination guidance based on the objectives and goals of the project.

2.! Applied the approaches and methodologies of examination.

3.! Set up the content of examination and inform each member among the exam

schedule.

4.! Review the results of the examination staff and report the strengths and

weaknesses for each.

5.! Provide the training advices for the project manager.

The purpose of the examination is that review the staff performance among the

professional knowledge, technique level and professional ethics. According to the

examination report, identify the issues and provide possible solutions to improve

person’s abilities and the probability of project success.

5.2.3 Office of Supervisor Enforcement

The duty of this office is to ensure all the employees complete their works correctly

and effectively. Thus, the supervisor would provide guidance to employees before

they start working to make sure they have the same goal and direction as an

organization. In the process, employees may have specific problems related to project.

In this case, the supervisor could help them to address the problems based on

professional knowledge and experience. At the end of each project, it is necessary to

evaluate the performance to know everyone’s contribution and drawback. Details of

strategies of enforcing as follows:

1.! Guide employees to complete the work

Before starting to work, all employees need to know organizational polices, project

programs and their responsibilities. Mechanical passing on an order by documents

could not accurately transmit information, because the written documents may create
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ambiguity and cannot ensure communication in time. To overcome the problem, the

supervisors in the office provide face-to-face guidance. They cannot only clearly

explain policies and programs that employees involved in, but also show them their

scope, standard and effective methods of work.

2.! Provide support to employees

No project can be completed without any problems. Problems could happen

anywhere. If nobody to collect these problems and just leave the problems to

employees themselves, then the project will exist many unsolved problems and even

hide problems. The supervisors of this office at the role of collecting problems,

solving problems, and reminding other related employees. They can apply their

knowledge and experience to solve the problems, or brainstorm a relative workable

solution. Their only purpose is to help all employees to complete works with quality

and efficiency.

3.! Appraise performance of employees

Performance appraisal aims to clarify the roles and responsibility of all employees,

which mean evaluating everyone’s contribution to the project. As long as the

contributions are determined, the issues of specific employees and other side issues

will be discovered. And once the issues are found, managers could start with analysis

problems and finding solutions. For the individual issues of employees, the

supervisors could make a plan of training to them. In this way, they will keep an eye

on these issues in future projects, and if similar issues occur, they will learn how to

address them.

5. 2.4 Office of Supervisor Consultant

Office of supervisor consultant provides useful suggestions and advices to internal

project managers or staff to support the continuing of the project. Details of strategies

as follow:

! 18

1.! Offer the strategy consultants to develop and improve the structure of organization

for senior management in the A380 project.

2.! Offer the marketing consultant to address the risks of competition between Airbus

Company and Boeing Company.

3.! Offer the management strategy of human resources to deal with the barriers of

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