Chat with us, powered by LiveChat Choose either your textbook readings or assigned group articles and respond as follows: Readings t | Max paper


Choose either your textbook readings or assigned group articles and respond as follows:

Readings to supplement tonight’s discussion: 

Jacobs, Masson, & Harvil (Ch 4, 5, 6, 13, 14) 

Brown, N. (2009).Theories and their applications. Becoming an effective group leader. Pearson.

Connections: How do the textbook readings or article readings connect to what you have already learned in class or to your experiences prior to this class?

Challenges: How do the readings or articles challenge your thinking or beliefs?  What new ideas extend or broaden your thinking in new directions?

Concepts: Identify the top 3-5 key concepts that are important to remember from your readings this week.  Please define each concept.   .

Changes: What changes in your attitudes, thinking, or action would you need to make to apply what is suggested in your readings?


Professor comments on last assignment “I wish that you elaborated a little more on your thinking related to your reading.”

And the attachment two are the lecture for today and the overview of the lecture and the next of is the article let me know if you unclear about anything please try to do what she mentioned in her comments thanks lesser



How do I plan a



Small Group Process for the Health Professional

HLSC 344

Fall 2016

Laurette Olson PhD OTR/L FAOTA

Group Components to plan

 Statement of purpose

 Establish goals

 Setting objectives

 Selection of content

 Designing Exercises

 Evaluating Group Experience

Statement of Purpose

 What is your focus?

 What is your theoretical orientation to your topic?

Theories guide beliefs about how change occurs in

individuals (awareness, knowledge, insight, and


 Who are your participants?

 What is the purpose of the group?

 what do you expect participants to gain from

participating (change in thinking feeling,

behavior, reconsidering a value)?



Establishing Goals

 Derived from your theoretical perspective about

how change will occur. Are you looking to:

 Increase awareness?

 increase knowledge?

 increase insight?

 change behavior?

 Goals and theoretical approach should always

be consistent.

Effective goals: The Group’s


 Reasonable: there is a learning

challenge before the group, but it is


 Measurable: participants should be able

to self-evaluate their own learning.

Setting Objectives: The Road


 The steps to reach goal over the course

of the group

 Objectives are logically sequenced.



Selecting Group Content

 Didactic (Interactive lecture: 10-15


 Experiential

 Process

Designing Exercises

 Self assessment

 Cognitive restructuring

 Role playing

 Imagery

 Creative arts

 Body awareness

 Homework

Choosing experiential activities

 Grounded in theory; consistent with how

the theory expects change to happen

(awareness, knowledge, insight, and


 Example: Time management viewed from

different perscpectives (Furr, 2000, p. 36)



When there is a series of psycho-

educational group sessions, a

leader must consider the stages

of group development as the

leader chooses activities.

 Intensity should be modulated across group

development. Intensity of activities and

exercises is:

 low in the beginning stages

 Increases in the middle stages

 Decreases as a group prepares for termination.

Jones & Robinson, 2000

Intensity is defined as the extent

to which a group topic, exercise or


 Evokes anxiety in or among group

 Challenges group participants to self

 Increases awareness of self or others.

 Focuses on feelings

 Concentrates on the here and now.

 Focuses on threatening issues

In choosing activities, a leader must

be cognizant of their clients’

readiness to approach certain




In planning and choosing activities

appropriate for a group’s stage of

development, a leader:

 Brainstorms group activities appropriate

for the group’s theme.

 Assesses the intensity of each activity.

 Sorts activities based upon the intensity

and most appropriate stage of group

development to leader to introduce


Process Component of content:

Crucial for transfer of learning

 Helping participants to connect the
experiential and didactic group

 Processing questions begin at the
concrete level and move to a more
abstract level where group members
consider how they might apply what was
discussed and experienced in their lives.


 Process evaluation

 Outcome evaluation



Pitfalls in Psychoeducational

Group Design

 Too broad a topic

 Time commitment needed for group design
process and detail for implementation.

 Choosing exercises and trying to build a
session around it.

 Not letting go a favored exercises when they
don’t fit stage, goals and/or objectives of a

 Losing the balance between process and
content: Letting the process dominate over


HLSC 344 Fall 2016

Overview of



Education and prevention
are central in these


HLSC 344 Fall 2016

Psychoeducational Groups

 Designed to help participants
develop knowledge and skills for
coping adaptively with potential
and/or immediate environmental
challenges, developmental
transitions or life crises (Association
for Specialists in Group Work, 1992)

HLSC 344 Fall 2016

Psychoeducational Groups

 Provided for all ages and educational
levels in every kind of practice setting.

 Emphasize learning rather than self-
awareness and self-understanding though
the latter may be a result of such groups.

 Cognitive components take precedence
over affective components, but again they
are not ignored if affective issues are


Leaders of psychoeducational

 Guide participants’ personal learning

 Show group members how to interact

 Provide opportunities for sharing

 Capitalize on and foster the development of
hope for change

 Implement strategies to promote members’
self understanding

 Create opportunities to practice new

HLSC 344 Fall 2016

HLSC 344 Fall 2016

In a psychoeducational group “it

is assumed that the leader has

some knowledge that

participants may not be able to

discover through normal group

interactions.” (Furr,2000, p.35)

HLSC 344 Fall 2016

Psychoeducational groups

 Emphasize didactic and instruction

 Use planned, structured activities

 Goals usually defined by leader

 Leader operates as a facilitator and teacher

 Focus on prevention

 No screening of members

 Groups can be large

 Self-disclosure accepted but not encouraged

 Task functions emphasized

 Sessions may be limited to one or have a series
of sessions.


Some myths and

misunderstandings (Brown, 2011)

 The group leader directs the group in
what to do and what to discuss.

 Only counseling groups are “real”

 Knowing what to do and say at all
times is the group leader’s

 Group leaders should be so confident
that they do not experience anxiety or
uncertainty. HLSC 344 Fall 2016

HLSC 344 Fall 2016


 Skills listed are the same as those
we previously discussed including
those skills stressed by Rogers
(Person-Centered Approach)

 Learning levels and leadership
strategies using theories of group
development to support learning

Knowledge for leadership
 Group dynamics

 Stages of group development

 Identification of group therapeutic

 Ethics

 Instructional Principles

 Information about the topic

 Theories including learning theory
and CBT (Cognitive Behavioral Theory)

HLSC 344 Fall 2016


In conceptualizing a psychoeducational

group leader, Brown identified

leadership factors

 ART Factors

 SCIENCE Factors

 SKILL Factors


HLSC 344 Fall 2016

Art Factors for leadeship


 Leader’s level and extent of self

 Understanding of potential counter-
transferential issues

 Basic and core attributes including
warmth and caring

 Ability to be empathic

 Cultural and diversity sensitivity

HLSC 344 Fall 2016

Art Factors continued

 Containing and managing personal

 Emotional presence of the leader in
the group

 Ability to use one’s inner
experiencing to understand group

 Making process commentary

HLSC 344 Fall 2016


Science Factors (Brown)

 Planning

 Organizing

 Directing

 Evaluating

 Structuring Sessions

 Matching target audience’s needs
with material

HLSC 344 Fall 2016

Skill Factors (Brown)

 Teaching

 Facilitating

 Modeling

 Conflict management and resolution

 Anxiety management

HLSC 344 Fall 2016

Technique Factors (Brown)

 Use of exercises and other activities

 Role play or simulation

 Discussion

 Lectures

 Use of media

HLSC 344 Fall 2016


Planning a psychoeducational


 Information gathering

 Decisions about proposed group

 Preparing

– Establish goals and objectives

– Plan for evaluating

– Gather supplies

– Write mini-lecture

– Prepare activities, exercises, role plays

HLSC 344 Fall 2016

HLSC 344 Fall 2016

Factors that affect the process of


 Individual factors of members

 Methods used by the leader

 Meaningfulness of material

 Transfer of learning and retention

HLSC 344 Fall 2016

Individual factors of Psychoeducational

Group Members

 Intelligence

 Age and maturation

 Education level

 Motivation

 Level of anxiety


HLSC 344 Fall 2016

Major Learning Theories

 Behaviorism

 Social Learning

 Cognitive and Cognitive Behavioral

 Gesalt

HLSC 344 Fall 2016

Thorndike: Learning as Problem


 Law of Readiness

 Law of Exercise

 Law of Effect

HLSC 344 Fall 2016

Skinner (1953) expanded concepts

of conditioning by adding the

concepts :

 Reinforcement schedule

 Shaping (successive approximation)

 Operants (positive reinforcement,
extinction, differential reinforcement,
response shaping, punishment,
negative reinforcement)


HLSC 344 Fall 2016

Mediation Stimulus-Response in

Learning (S-O-R theory): Dollard

and Miller (1950) summary of it as

explained by Brown (1998)

 Learning involves a drive or need for

 Cues to provide information and
direction to the response

 The reinforcement

HLSC 344 Fall 2016

Social Learning theory built

on SOR theories by more

specifically focusing on

environmental influences

and cognitive influences on


HLSC 344 Fall 2016

Gestalt theories (insight)

 Learning happens as a result of modification that
occur in response to meaningful patterns or

 Reorganizing old learning to grasp new learning.

 The 3 necessary conditions for learning: a goal,
structure, and insight.

 (behavior is goal-directed, the structure is the
individual’s internal ways of organizing the world,
the insight is the sudden coming together of
previously unrelated components to form a whole
that can be understood).


HLSC 344 Fall 2016


 Active participation

 Distribution of practice of new skills
learned in the group

 Knowledge of results (Did I do it

 Whole versus part (teaching and

HLSC 344 Fall 2016

Transfer of learning

 Formal Discipline theory

 Theory of Identical elements

 Generalization theory

 Transposition theory (Gestalt)

HLSC 344 Fall 2016

Theories of forgetting

 Trace decay theory

 Interference theory (proactive
inhibition and retroactive inhibition)


HLSC 344 Fall 2016

Principles of Psychoeducational


 Clear Goals

 Readiness

 Motivation

 Active versus passive

 Organization

 Comprehension

 practice

HLSC 344 Fall 2016

Bloom’s taxonomy: Useful when

thinking about stages of learning

 Knowledge

 Comprehension

 Application

 Analysis

 Synthesis

 Evaluation

HLSC 344 Fall 2016

Psychoeducational Techniques

 Lectures

 Discussion

 Exercises and games

 Media


HLSC 344 Fall 2016

Effective Communication for a leader

of a psychoeducational group

 Two-way communication

 Active listening

 Effective feedback

 Lack of listener stress

 Clarity

 Focusing on the core issue

 Speaking for yourself– avoiding the use
terms like we, the group or all of us feel or

HLSC 344 Fall 2016

How to use questions as a leader

 To obtain data and information

 To clarify and avoid

 To pinpoint something in order to
take immediate action

HLSC 344 Fall 2016

Types of questions

 Direct questions

 Indirect questions

 Open questions

 Closed questions

 Double questions


HLSC 344 Fall 2016

Developing questioning skills

 Become aware of how often you ask
questions (tally the number and type of
questions that you ask)

 Observe your own behavior and that of
others when asking questions.

 Reflect on your reactions to questions
– Do you become defensive?

– Rush in to answer quickly?

– Answer indirectly or with a question

– Ignore the question

HLSC 344 Fall 2016

To encourage participants to ask


within the group (Brown, 1998)

 Determine your expectations

 Inform group members of your

 Ask if members have any questions
and pause for a few seconds before

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