Chat with us, powered by LiveChat read the word file first, and make sure that: 1- the due date is Tuesday 30th of November 2- the ma | Max paper
  

read the word file first, and make sure that:

1- the due date  is Tuesday 30th of November

2- the maximum percentage of plagiarism is 5%

3- the minimum number of words is 500

4- take most of the information from the PowerPoint slides uploaded

Psy 101, sem 211

Assignment:

1. Read Chapter 12 (Emotion, Stress and Health) thoroughly

2. Define stress

3. Define Emotion

4. Demonstrate the relationship between stress and health

5. Summarize the chapter

6. Your work should not be less than 500 words.

7. Plagiarism MUST NOT be more than 5%

8. Deadline MUST BE respected. The deadline is November 30 at 11:59 PM

9. Submit your assignment through Turnitin in LMS.

10. Submit in PART I and if plagiarism is more than 5%, correct and resubmit in Part II

11. DO NOT email me your work. The only submission setting is Turnitin in LMS.

12. The title of your submission should be your student ID number

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Chapter Twelve: Emotion, Stress and Health

Chapter Overview

  • Introduction to Emotion
  • Expressing Emotion
  • Stress and Illness
  • Health and Coping

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Emotion: Arousal, Behavior, and Cognition

  • Emotions are adaptive responses that support survival.
  • Emotional components
  • Bodily arousal
  • Expressive behaviors
  • Conscious experiences

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Emotion: Arousal, Behavior, and Cognition

  • Theories of emotion generally address two major questions.
  • Does physiological arousal come before or after emotional feelings?
  • How do feeling and cognition interact?

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Historical Emotion Theories

  • James-Lange Theory: Arousal comes before emotion
  • Experience of emotion involves awareness of our physiological responses to emotion-arousing stimuli
  • Cannon-Bard Theory: Arousal and emotion happen at the same time
  • Emotion – arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers (1) physiological responses and (2) the subjective experience of emotion
  • Human body responses run parallel to the cognitive responses rather than causing them

Adjusting the Cannon-Bard Theory

  • Emotions are not just a separate mental experience. When our body responses are blocked, emotions do not feel as intense.
  • Our cognitions influence our emotions in many ways, including our interpretations of stimuli: “Is that a threat? Then I’m afraid.”

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Historical Emotion Theories

  • Schachter and Singer Two-Factor Theory: Arousal + Label = Emotion
  • Emotions have two ingredients: Physical arousal and cognitive appraisal.
  • Arousal fuels emotion; cognition channels it.
  • Emotional experience requires a conscious interpretation of arousal.
  • Spillover effect: Spillover arousal from one event to the next—influencing a response

In a study by Stanley Schachter and Jerome Singer in 1962, subjects experienced a spillover effect when arousal was caused by injections of what turned out to be adrenaline.

The subjects interpreted their agitation to whatever emotion the others in the room appeared to be feeling; the emotional label “spilled over” from others.

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THE SPILLOVER EFFECT

Arousal from a soccer match can fuel anger, which can descend into rioting or other violent

confrontations.

Oleg Popov/Reuters/Landov

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EMOTIONS AND THE AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM

  • The arousal component of emotion is regulated by the autonomic nervous system’s sympathetic (arousing) and parasympathetic (calming) divisions.
  • In a crisis, the fight-or-flight response automatically mobilized the body for action.
  • Arousal affects performance in different ways, depending on the task.
  • Performance peaks at lower levels of arousal for difficult tasks, and at higher levels for easy or well-learned tasks.

ANS mobilizes body for action with stress hormones from adrenal glands, sugar from liver into bloodstream, increased heart rate and blood pressure, and slowed digestion.

When crisis passes, ANS slows and hormones gradually leave bloodstream

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Like a crisis control center, the autonomic nervous system arouses the body in a crisis and calms it when danger passes.

EMOTIONAL AROUSAL

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PHYSIOLOGY OF EMOTIONS

  • Different emotions have subtle indicators.
  • Brain scans and EEGs reveal different brain circuits for different emotions.
  • Depression and general negativity: Right frontal lobe activity
  • Happiness, enthusiastic, and energized: Left frontal lobe activity

More meaningful differences have been found in activity in some brain pathways and cortical areas.

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Detecting Emotion in Others

  • People can often detect nonverbal cues and threats, and signs of status.
  • Nonthreatening cues more easily detected than deceiving expressions
  • Westerners
  • Firm handshake: Outgoing, expressive personality
  • Gaze: Intimacy
  • Averted glance: Submission
  • Stare: Dominance

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Gender, Emotion, and Nonverbal Behavior

  • Women
  • Tend to read emotional cues more easily and to be more empathic
  • Express more emotion with their faces
  • People attribute female emotionality to disposition and male emotionality to circumstance

Women detect emotions (except anger) better than men

Women’s skill at decoding others’ emotions may also contribute to their greater emotional responsiveness

Females more likely to express empathy and experience emotional events.

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Culture – Specific or Culturally Universal Expressions?

As people of differing cultures, do our faces speak the same language or different languages? Which face expresses disgust? Anger? Fear? Happiness? Sadness? Surprise? (From Matsumoto & Ekman, 1989.)

From left to right, top to bottom: happiness, surprise, fear, sadness, anger, disgust

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The Effects of Facial Expressions

  • Research on the facial feedback effect
  • Facial expressions can trigger emotional feelings and signal our body to respond accordingly
  • People also mimic others’ expressions, which help them empathize
  • A similar behavior feedback effect
  • Tendency of behavior to influence our own and others’ thoughts, feelings, and actions

Facial feedback effect

Research demonstrates that outward expressions and movements can trigger inner feeling and emotions.

Behavior feedback effect

This is similar to facial feedback effect wherein behaving in certain way awakens emotions.

Understanding of feedback effects can be used to increase empathic behavior

Letting your face mimic another person’s expression

Acting as another acts

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Experiencing Emotion: Anger

  • Causes
  • With threat or challenge, fear triggers flight but anger triggers fight—each at times an adaptive behavior.
  • Anger is most often evoked by misdeeds that we interpret as willful, unjustified, and avoidable.
  • Smaller frustrations and blameless annoyances can also trigger anger.

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Experiencing Emotion: Anger

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Experiencing Emotion: Happiness

  • State of happiness influences all facets of life
  • Feel-good, do-good phenomenon
  • People’s tendency to be helpful when already in a good mood
  • Subjective well-being
  • Self-perceived happiness or satisfaction with life
  • Used along with measures of objective well-being to evaluate people’s quality of life

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Stress and Illness

  • Stress is process by which we perceive and respond to certain events, called stressors, that we appraise as threatening or challenging
  • Stressors appraised as threats can lead to strong negative reactions
  • Extreme or prolonged stress can cause harm

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Stressors: Things That Push Our Buttons

  • Catastrophes: Unpleasant, large-scale events
  • Significant life changes: Personal events; life transitions
  • Daily hassles: Day-to-day challenges
  • Catastrophes: Unpleasant, large-scale events
  • Significant damage to emotional and physical health
  • Significant life changes: Personal events
  • Reported by one-half of people in twenties and one-fifth of those over 65
  • Raises risk of disease and death; cluster crisis is worse
  • Daily hassles: Day-to-day challenges
  • Can negatively affect physical and mental well-being

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Stress Response

  • Cannon viewed the stress response as a “fight-or-flight” system.
  • Selye proposed a general three-phase (alarm-resistance-exhaustion) general adaptation syndrome (GAS).
  • Facing stress, women may have a tend-and-befriend response; men may withdraw socially, turn to alcohol, or become aggressive.

Brain production of new neurons slow; some neural circuits degenerate

Telemere shortening occurs

Nurturing and banding together may occur, especially in women (tend and befriend)

Lowered resistance to infections and threats to mental and physical well-being may result

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Stress Effects and Health

Health psychology is a subfield of psychology that provides psychology’s contribution to behavioral medicine.

Psychoneuroimmunologists study mind-body interactions, including

stress-related physical illnesses, such as hypertension and some headaches.

Stress diverts energy from the immune system, inhibiting the activities of its B and T lymphocytes, macrophages, and NK cells.

Stress does not cause diseases such as AIDS and cancer, but by altering our immune functioning it may make us more vulnerable to them and influence their progression.

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Stress and Vulnerability to Disease

  • Immune system is affected by age, nutrition, genetics, body temperature, and stress
  • When the immune system does not function properly:
  • Responds too strongly
  • Underreacts

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Stress Effects and Health: Immune System Malfunctions

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Stress Effects and Health

  • Stress hormones suppress immune system
  • Animal studies: Stress of adjustment in monkeys caused weakened immune systems
  • Human studies: Stress related to surgical wound healing and development of colds. Low stress may increase effectiveness of vaccinations.
  • And so…stress does not make people sick but it reduces immune system’s ability to function optimally.
  • Slower surgical wound healing; increased vulnerability to colds; decreased vaccine effectiveness

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Stress Effects and Health

  • Stress and AIDS
  • Stress cannot give people AIDS, but may speed transition from HIV infection to AIDS and the decline in those with AIDS.
  • Stress and cancer
  • Stress does not create cancer cells, but may affect growth by weakening natural defenses.
  • Stress-cancer research results mixed

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Stress and Heart Disease

  • Stress and heart disease
  • About 600,000 North American coronary heart disease-related deaths yearly
  • Stress related to generation of inflammation which is associated with heart and other health problems
  • Meyer and colleagues
  • Stress predicted heart attack risk for tax accountants
  • Type A men more likely to have heart attack
  • Conley and colleagues
  • Stress related to everyday academic stressors in students

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Stress and Heart Disease

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Stress and Heart Disease

  • Stress, pessimism, and depression
  • Pessimists are more likely than optimists to develop heart disease
  • Depression increases risk of death, especially by cardiovascular disease
  • Stress and inflammation
  • Chronic stress triggers persistent inflammation which increases risk of heart disease and depression

Stress→inflammation→heart disease and depression Gregory Miller and Ekin Blackwell (2006) report that chronic stress leads to persistent inflammation, which heightens the risk of both depression and

clogged arteries.

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Coping With Stress

People deal with stress through the use of several coping strategies.

  • Problem-focused coping
  • Emotion-focused coping
  • Coping: Reducing stress using emotional, cognitive, or behavioral methods
  • Problem-focused coping: Attempting to reduce stress directly—by changing the stressor or the way we interact with that stressor
  • Emotion-focused coping: Attempting to reduce stress by avoiding or ignoring a stressor and attending to emotional needs related to our stress reaction

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Learned Helplessness

Learned helplessness

Involves dramatic form of loss of control

May result in negative health consequences

Fox and colleagues

Roberts and colleagues

Fleming and colleagues

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Personal Control

  • Why does perceived loss of control predict health problems?
  • Losing control produces rising stress hormones blood pressure levels increase immune responses drop
  • Increasing control has noticeably improved health and morale in prison and nursing home studies
  • Tyranny of choice can create information overload

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Personal Control

  • Those who have an external locus of control believe that chance or outside forces control their fate
  • Those who have an internal locus of control believe they control their own destiny

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Depleting and Strengthening Self-Control

  • Self-control
  • Ability to control impulses and delay short-term gratification for greater long-term rewards
  • Exercising willpower temporarily depletes the mental energy needed for self-control on other tasks.
  • Self-control requires attention and energy, but it predicts good adjustment, better grades, and social success.

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Explanatory Style: Optimism Versus Pessimism

  • Pessimists
  • Expect things to go badly, blame others
  • Optimists/optimism
  • Expect to have control, work well under stress, and enjoy good health
  • Run in families; genetic marker/oxytocin
  • Danner and colleagues: Optimism-long life correlation study

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Health and Coping

  • Social support helps fight illness in two ways.
  • It calms cardiovascular system, which lowers blood pressure and stress hormone levels.
  • It fights illness by fostering stronger immune functioning.
  • Close relationships give us an opportunity for “open heart therapy,” a chance to confide painful feelings.

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Reducing Stress

  • Aerobic exercise, relaxation, meditation, and active spiritual engagement may help us gather inner strength and lessen stress effects.

Based on what we have learned so far, can you guess why?

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Reducing Stress

  • Aerobic exercise
  • Involves sustained activity that increases heart and lung fitness; reduces stress, depression, and anxiety
  • Can weaken the influence of genetic risk for obesity
  • Increases the quality and “quantity” of life (~two years)

It increases arousal, leads to muscle relaxation and sounder sleep, triggers the production of neurotransmitters, and enhances self-image. It can relieve depression and, in later life, is associated with better cognitive functioning and longer life.

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Reducing Stress

  • Relaxation and mediation
  • Relaxation: More than 60 studies found that relaxation procedures can provide relief from headaches, high blood pressure, anxiety, and insomnia.
  • Relaxation training: Training has been used to help Type A heart attack survivors reduce risk of future heart attacks.

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Faith Communities and Health

  • Faith factor
  • Religiously active people tend to live longer than those who are not religiously active.
  • Why?
  • Possible explanations may include the effect of intervening variables, such as the healthy behaviors, social support, or positive emotions often found among people who regularly attend religious services.
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