Chat with us, powered by LiveChat Assignment 8: Where I’ve Come from and My Thoughts Now Final Assignment Description: You will c | Max paper
  

Assignment 8: Where I’ve Come from and My Thoughts Now Final Assignment

Description:

You will create a visual representation of what you have learned in this course this fall by describing what you used to think/believe/know about the concepts and what you think/believe/know now. You will present your final product to the class in a 2 to a 5-minute explanatory presentation.

Options for a visual representation:

You choose eight (8) of the following 15 topics:

  1. Transformational Leadership

  2. Authentic Leadership

  3. Servant Leadership

  4. Adaptive Leadership

  5. Strengths Based Leadership

  6. Leadership Ethics

  7. Followership

  8. Team Leadership

  9. Gender & Leadership

  10. Culture and Leadership

  11. Grace

  12. Trust

  13. Hope

  14. Compassion

  15. Stability

 

Criteria: Out of 30

  1. Visual appeal: /5

    • Creativity and use of graphics

  • Organization: /5

    • Free of spelling errors

    • Clear and focussed

  • Content: /10

    • Connection to personal experience: What personal connection do you have to this concept?

    • Is this your voice?  Your thoughts and ideas, not someone else’s.

  • A statement answering the question: /5

    • Why should anyone be led by you?

  • Credit sources: /5

    • You must credit your sources and submit a reference list with the assignment.

  • 1

    Transformational Leadership

    Chapter 8

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    Overview

    Transformational Leadership (TL) Perspective

    A Model of Transformational Leadership

    Transformational Leadership Factors

    Full Range of Leadership Model

    The Additive Effects of TL

    Other Transformational Leadership Perspectives

    How Does the Transformational Approach Work?

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    Transformational Leadership

    Description

    Process–TL is a process that changes and transforms individuals, both leaders and followers.

    Influence–TL involves an exceptional form of influence that moves followers to accomplish more than what is usually expected.

    Core elements–TL is concerned with emotions, values, ethics, standards, and long-term goals.

    Encompassing approach–TL describes a wide range of leadership influence where followers and leaders are bound together in the transformation process.

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    Types of Leadership Defined (Burns, 1978)

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    TRANSACTIONAL

    Focuses on the

    exchanges

    that occur

    between leaders

    and their followers

    TRANSFORMATIONAL

    Process of

    engaging with others

    to create a connection that increases

    motivation and morality in both the leader and the follower

    Focuses on the

    leader’s

    own interests rather than the interests of his or her followers

    PSEUDO-TRANSFORMATIONAL

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    Types of Leadership Defined
    (Burns, 1978)

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    TRANSACTIONAL

    Focuses on the

    exchanges

    that occur

    between leaders

    and their followers

    No new taxes = votes

    Turn in assignments = grade

    Surpass goals = promotion

    The exchange dimension is so common that you can observe it at all walks of life.

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    Transactional Leadership Story

    My story of transactional leadership:

    Key points:

    Power imbalance

    Exchange of good/services

    Attempt at mutual benefit

    “You scratch my back, I’ll scratch yours”

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    Breakout Room

    Break-Out Room Agenda:

    Introduce yourself

    Each person tell a story of a transactional leadership situation

    What were the currencies being exchanged in each transaction?

    Work? Promotions? Time? Financial Benefit? Etc.

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    Types of Leadership Defined
    (Burns, 1978)

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    Leaders who are

    transforming but in a negative way

    self-consumed, exploitive; power- oriented, with warped moral values

    Includes leaders like

    Adolph Hitler

    Saddam Hussein

    PSEUDOTRANSFORMATIONAL

    Focuses on the

    leader’s

    own interests rather than the interests of his or her followers

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    Pseudotransformational
    (Christie, Barling, & Turner, 2011)

    Four experimental studies => model of pseudotransformational leadership

    Self-serving

    Unwilling to encourage independent thought in followers

    Exhibits little general caring for others

    Uses inspiration and appeal to manipulate followers for his or her own ends

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    Types of Leadership Defined Burns (1978)

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    TRANSFORMATIONAL

    Process of

    engaging with others

    to create a connection

    that increases

    motivation

    and morality in both the

    leader and the follower

    Leader is attentive to the needs and motives of followers and tries to help followers reach their fullest potential.

    Mohandas Gandhi raised the hopes and demands of millions of his people and in the process was changed himself.

    Ryan White raised people’s awareness about AIDS.

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    Transformational Leadership and Charisma

    Definition

    Charisma–A special personality characteristic that gives a person superhuman or exceptional powers and is reserved for a few, is of divine origin, and results in the person being treated as a leader (Weber, 1947).

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    Charismatic Leadership Theory (House, 1976)

    Charismatic leaders act in unique ways that have specific charismatic effects on their followers.

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    Theory of Charismatic Leadership

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    (House, 1976)

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    Table 8.1: Personality Characteristics, Behaviors, and Effects on Followers of Charismatic Leadership

    Theory of Charismatic Leadership
    (Shamir, House, & Arthur, 1993)

    Later Studies

    Charismatic Leadership:

    Transforms follower’s self-concepts; tries to link identity of followers to collective identity of the organization

    Forge this link by emphasizing intrinsic rewards and de-emphasizing extrinsic rewards

    Throughout process, leaders

    express high expectations for followers

    help followers gain sense of self-confidence and self-efficacy

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    Model of Transformational Leadership (Bass, 1985)

    Expanded and refined version of work done by Burns and House. It included

    More attention to followers’ rather than leader’s needs

    Suggested TL could apply to outcomes that were not positive

    Described transactional and transformational leadership as a continuum

    Extended House’s work by

    Giving more attention to emotional elements and origins of charisma

    Suggested charisma is a necessary but not sufficient condition for TL

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    Model of Transformational Leadership

    TL motivates followers beyond the expected by

    raising consciousness about the value and importance of specific and idealized goals

    transcending self-interest for the good of the team or organization

    addressing higher level needs

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    Figure 8.1: Leadership Continuum From Transformational to Laissez-Faire Leadership

    Transformational Leadership Factors

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    Transformational Leadership Transactional Leadership Laissez-Faire Leadership
    Factor 1
    Idealized influence
    Charisma
    Factor 5
    Contingent reward
    Constructive transactions
    Factor 7
    Laissez-faire
    Non-transactional
    Factor 2
    Inspirational motivation
    Factor 3
    Intellectual stimulation
    Factor 6
    Management by exception
    Active and passive
    Corrective transactions
    Factor 4
    Individual consideration

    Table 8.2 Leadership Factors.

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    Table 8.2: Leadership Factors

    Full Range of Leadership Model

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    Figure 8.2: Full Range of Leadership Model with Legend

    Full Range of Leadership Model

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    Pseudo-transformational Leadership

    4 I’s

    Idealized influence (II-A and II-B)

    Inspirational motivation

    Intellectual stimulation

    Individual consideration

    Transactional Leadership

    Effective

    Ineffective

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    Figure 8.2: Full Range of Leadership Model with Legend

    Transformational Leadership

    Management-by-exception Passive

    Laissez-faire Leadership

    Contingent Reward

    Management-by-exception Active

    Transformational Leadership Factors: The 4 Is

    Idealized Influence

    Acting as strong role models

    High standards of moral and ethical conduct

    Making others want to follow the leader’s vision

    Inspirational Motivation

    Communicating high expectations

    Inspiring followers to commitment and engagement in shared vision

    Using symbols and emotional appeals to focus group members to achieve more than self-interest

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    Transformational Leadership Factors: The 4 Is

    Intellectual Stimulation

    Stimulating followers to be creative and innovative

    Challenging their own beliefs and valuing those of leader and organization

    Supporting followers to

    Try new approaches

    Develop innovative ways of dealing with organization issues

    Individualized Consideration

    Listening carefully to the needs of followers

    Acting as coaches to assist followers in becoming fully actualized

    Helping followers grow through personal challenges

    For example, showing optimism helps employees become more engaged in their work (Tims et al., 2011)

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    Transformational Leadership Story

    My story of Transformational Leadership

    Key Points to think about during the story:

    Idealized Influence

    Inspirational Motivation

    Intellectual Stimulation

    Individual Consideration

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    The Additive Effect of Transformational Leadership

    Augments impact on employee’s performance and company profit (Rowald & Heinitz, 2007)

    Positively related to job satisfaction and performance (Nemanich & Keller, 2007)

    Boosts employee engagement and optimism (Tims, et. al., 2011)

    TL leaders more likely to promote employee’s achieving their mastery goals (Hamstra, et.al.,2014)

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    Transactional Leadership Factors

    Contingent Reward

    The exchange process between leaders and followers in which effort by followers is exchanged for specified rewards

    For example, how much TV a child can watch after practicing piano.

    Management-by-Exception

    Leadership that involves corrective criticism, negative feedback, and negative reinforcement

    Two forms

    Active–Watches follower closely to identify mistakes/rule violations

    Passive–Intervenes only after standards have not been met or problems have arisen

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    Nonleadership Factor

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    Laissez-Faire

    The Absence of Leadership

    A hands-off, let-things-ride approach

    Refers to a leader who

    abdicates responsibility,

    delays decisions,

    gives no feedback, and

    makes little effort to help followers satisfy their needs.

    May also be a strategic choice by leader to acknowledge subordinates’ abilities

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    Individualized Consideration

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    Figure 8.3: The Additive Effect of Transformational Leadership

    Bennis and Nanus (1985)

    Four Leader Strategies in Transforming Organizations

    Clear vision of organization’s future state

    TL’s social architect of organization

    Create trust by making their position known and standing by it

    Creatively deploy themselves through positive self-regard

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    Kouzes and Pozner (1987, 2002)

    Model consists of five fundamental practices

    Model the Way

    Inspire a Shared Vision

    Challenge the Process

    Enable Others to Act

    Encourage the Heart

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    How Does the Transformational Leadership Approach Work?

    Focus of Transformational Leadership

    Strengths

    Criticisms

    Application

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    Transformational Leadership

    Focus of Transformational

    Leaders

    TLs empower and nurture followers

    TLs stimulate change by becoming strong role models for followers

    TLs commonly create a vision

    TLs require leaders to become social architects

    TLs build trust and foster collaboration

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    Overall Scope

    Describes how leaders can initiate, develop, and carry out significant changes in organizations

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    Strengths

    Broadly researched. TL has been widely researched, including a large body of qualitative research centering on prominent leaders and CEOs in major firms.

    Intuitive appeal. People are attracted to TL because it makes sense to them.

    Process focused. TL treats leadership as a process occurring between followers and leaders.

    Expansive leadership view. TL provides a broader view of leadership that augments other leadership models. Contributes to leader’s growth.

    Emphasizes followers. TL emphasizes followers’ needs, values, and morals.

    Effectiveness. Evidence supports that TL is an effective form of leadership.

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    Criticisms

    Lacks conceptual clarity

    Dimensions are not clearly delimited

    Parameters of TL overlap with similar conceptualizations of leadership

    Unclear whether dimensions are simply descriptions of TL

    Measurement questioned

    Validity of MLQ not fully established

    Some transformational factors are not unique solely to the transformational model

    TL treats leadership more as a personality trait or predisposition than a behavior that can be taught

    No causal link shown between transformational leaders and changes in followers or organizations

    TL is elitist and antidemocratic

    Suffers from heroic leadership bias

    Has the potential to be abused

    May not be well-received by millennials

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    Application

    Provides a general way of thinking about leadership that stresses ideals, inspiration, innovations, and individual concerns

    Can be taught to individuals at all levels of the organization

    Able to positively impact a firm’s performance

    May be used as a tool in recruitment, selection, promotion, and training development

    Can be used to improve team development, decision-making groups, quality initiatives, and reorganizations

    The MLQ and Sosik and Jung (2010) guide help leaders to target areas of leadership improvement

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