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Running head: LITERATURE REVIEW 1

LITERATURE REVIEW 2

Literature Review

Sai Sruthi Gundabathula

Pittsburg State University

Literature Review

Introduction

Employees and student-employees performance is determined by their level of motivation, and this should be taken with much seriousness by the organization management. Motivation of the employees and student employees is achieved when they are assigned equal task that is within the capabilities and avoid overworking them. Assigning huge workload to the employees and student employees is likely to result to low performance (Beutell, 2015). The problem has been experienced in various organizations where there is no standardized working hour that meets the employee and student employees’ satisfaction and lack of IT capabilities that provide the ideal working hours. The IT capability is expected to allow the student-employees also have a structured schedule of their 20 hours work schedule and accommodate student study schedule and avoid conflicting sessions. The study targets to provide a solution on how appropriate scheduling would result to employee satisfaction. The scheduling of ideal working hours and using IT-scheduled capability automates employees schedule and achieve flexibility that contribute to 20 hours a week enabling student-employees attend to their academic work and flexibility for other employees achieving workplace satisfaction.

The study’s hypothesis from the perspective of the student-employee is if the dining operations’ IT capability to assign student-employees a 20 hours per week work schedule that is commensurate with each student’s class/study and work availability scheduled hours for each week of an academic semester is promoted, then student-employee satisfaction that leads to effective dining operations will be achieved.

Theoretical Foundation

Workers’ schedules in a workplace are set to fit the existing and future needs of the business. Setting up schedules to ensure a smooth switch from one day to another is also a part of this. An efficient workforce scheduling system is essential in every industry that relies on hourly personnel. Scheduling must be efficient to handle last-minute changes, such as delays in reporting for the job and spontaneous absences. Contrary to this trend, the use of IT-software to manage large workforce scheduling has expanded tremendously (Beutell, 2015). For the first time, the operational challenges faced by managers in maximizing labor management are being automated through workforce scheduling technology and software. Large workloads can be handled by AI-powered solutions, seasonal needs can be predicted, and shift worker schedules can be optimized. As an additional benefit, it allows employees to take control of their schedules and swap shifts directly with other employees if necessary.

The first step in developing an optimal scheduling plan is determining how much business demand will be on a given day. Workforce management software driven by AI delivers real-time and historical data on patterns in high-traffic hours and the availability of manpower to determine the number of employees required. With this information, it can predict how many employees a company needs at any time. As a result of this, managers will be able to spend more time on strategic tasks (Kobayashi, 2020). Any workforce scheduling software should allow you to plan months in advance. Additionally, it should be able to send out emails or text messages to inform workers of schedule changes or cancellations. Plan your time management using a computer as well as a mobile device (Smith, 2019). The system should be able to help you arrange schedules in advance for several locations and provide the same capabilities of shift swap and automated notifications about changes for larger businesses. A hallmark of artificial intelligence (AI) is personalization, and it may be used to customize staff schedules depending on their availability and work patterns. It is conceivable, according to Kobayashi (2020), to construct a student timetable in study work and workplace activities to achieve a balance and achieve 20 hours per week using artificial intelligence in conjunction with IT software. Student-employee satisfaction is increased due to the flexible work schedules that allow other employees to balance their academic and family commitments.

At the dining facility operations, the relationship between the variables is depicted when the Its capabilities like the easy way of serving the food, or contactless orders. These are the factors which show that the independent variable is effective with the dependent variable. Here as explained the dependent variable student employees and the employees known the supervisors depends upon the IT capabilities that make their works easy and seek for the factors that the more, they work and the less pay they get may not lead to the student employee satisfaction. So, the factors like the good pay, environment and the relationship of the student employee and the supervisors and the correct usage of the IT technology capabilities and improving the dining facilities at the on-campus level show the relationship of the independent and the dependent variables and how they depend upon each other.

Time Tracking

A company can keep track of how many hours each employee works with the help of workforce scheduling software. Thus, it is possible to keep track of overtime hours worked and identify situations in which there is a dearth or an oversupply of employees (Prasad & Mishra, 2021). This is critical if working overtime or failing to follow the shift worker regulations puts you in jeopardy of a disciplinary action. “In order to maintain a fully employed workforce that complies with all local and national labor rules, we need a very sound labor management approach.” (Kobayashi, 2020). The approach has demonstrated the best way that the institution would use in allocating 20 hours to the student-employees and the other employees to achieve a flexible schedule that ensure student attend academic and the other employees get family time resulting satisfaction for both employees.

Benefits of IT Capability Scheduling for Employees

The automated scheduling in the workplace that ensure that student employees work 20 hours a week despite the academic appointments that comes in-between helps in saving time and resources for the employees and that of the organization. The approach ensures that employees’ works within the hours that is allowed by the labor laws and avoid fines associated with overworking staff. Automated staff scheduling systems takes into consideration your labor cost goals and provide an organization schedule with up to 95% accuracy (Kobayashi, 2020). It is possible to delegate scheduling to less-experienced members of your management team with this level of accuracy. When it comes to ensuring that the best servers are assigned to the busiest shifts or that requests for time off are taken into consideration, you don’t have to worry about anything. These considerations are already considered by automatic scheduling. finally, all that’s required is a mobile restaurant scheduling solution that automatically communicates the schedule to your personnel. Satisfaction of employees is achieved when they have their IT-automated schedule increases performance in the workplace (Prasad & Mishra, 2021).

References

Beutell, N. (2015). Work schedule, work schedule control and satisfaction in relation to work‐family conflict, work‐family synergy, and domain satisfaction. Career Development International15(5), 501-518. https://doi.org/10.1108/13620431011075358

Kobayashi, K. (2020). Online interval scheduling to maximize total satisfaction. Theoretical Computer Science806, 673-688. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tcs.2019.10.046

Prasad,, L., & Mishra, P. (2021). Impact of work life flexibility on work performance of the employees of IT Companies. Psychology And Education Journal58(2), 6084-6089. https://doi.org/10.17762/pae.v58i2.3084

Smith, D. (2019). The 5 Benefits of Automated Employee Scheduling. Lightspeed. Retrieved 3 November 2021, from https://www.lightspeedhq.com/blog/the-5-benefits-of-automated-employee-scheduling-restaurant-operations-to/.

RESEARCH OVERVIEW 1

RESEARCH OVERVIEW 6

EMPLOYEE-STUDENTS SATISFACTION RESEARCH OVERVIEW

I. Research Overview

1. Introduction

The number of hours that both employees and student employees work per week can either motivate them or demotivate them. This, therefore, can lead to either satisfaction or dissatisfaction between the employees and student-employees. The importance of ensuring that the Information Technology (IT) capability in assigning ideal number and a schedule of working hours to both the employees and student-employees is very important that satisfaction is achieved and improved among the parties (Stamper & Barnes, 2019). This does not only help in achieving satisfaction, but this also specifically helps in making the work of the other people who are working in the dining facility simplified and effective. This includes the work of dining facility supervisors, dining facility users, and the general management of the dining operations.

Satisfaction for both employees and student-employees must be achieved for the smooth running of activities in any organization within an academic institution. The importance for the IT capabilities to provide a student who is also a part time employee (student-employee) the ideal of a scheduled 20 work hours week aligned and de-conflicted with the student-employee’s class/study schedule is the goal to ensure student-employee satisfaction is achieved.

However, the IT capabilities do not provide the ideal hours that are needed by both the student-employees and the other employees for them to be satisfied. This research aims to examine this specific problem by collecting data from different participants in the institution’s dining operations including supervisors, head of cooks, other supervisors such as safety and health, logistics, transportation, human resource, and other staff members to address how and why the organization’s IT capabilities can provide the ideal scheduled hours that will lead to student employee satisfaction (Saha & Kumar, 2018).

Critical information on the student’s daily and hourly availability to work is one of the most important things that must be accounted for in scheduling work hours for the student-employee, and the unavailability of this information has led to the deficit in specifically knowing the number of working hours that the student-employee might be scheduled per week., This brings about inequality in the working hours that are provided to student-employees.

2. Statement of the Problem

Student-employee satisfaction in dining operations has specifically been an issue in many educational institutions. It has specifically been the case since the lack of information that the IT is supposed to provide, especially on students’ availability to work, is not there, which has brought about student-employee dissatisfaction. This research, therefore, seeks to take a qualitative approach in examining how to achieve student-employee satisfaction in scheduling work hours in the dining facility. The IT capabilities that ensure student-employees are provided 20 work hours per week is an ideal number of working hours to both the employees and the student-employees. However, there is a lack of understanding in the dining operation’s management of student-employee scheduled working hours how to do this and, as importantly, why to do this. Addressing this issue helps ensure that the problem of student-employee satisfaction is addressed simply by examining the satisfaction of student-employees on the ideal number of working hours and the capabilities of IT that might be used by the dining facility operations management team in determining the working hours assigned to each employee and student-employee (Wooten et al., 2020), this specifically helps in ensuring that there is a fair distribution of hours that are assigned to both the employees and student-employees. The lack of this capability by the IT of the schools in determining the ideal hours is the main cause of low student-employee satisfaction. Addressing this issue might specifically address other problems that are affecting the dining facility supervisors, the dining facility users, the management, and even the faculty and the stuff members using the facility.

3. Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study is to identify the reason to schedule ideal work hours for the student-employee and to come up with ways in which the IT capabilities might ensure that ideal working hours for both the employees and the student-employees can be achieved. The results of this study will benefit the dining facility operations employees and the student-employees by ensuring that that the employees and the student-employees are provided a coordinated and deconflicted weekly working hour schedule that takes advantage of IT capabilities that crosses the individuals’ academic, critical support, and availability schedules to create schedules that achieve specific and regular working hours for employees and student-employees (Kambli et al., 2020). Other than dining facility operations, the scheduling of other student-employee operations could also benefit from the results of this study.

4. Research Questions

This study focuses on the effects that the IT capabilities have on ensuring that student-employees are assigned the ideal 20 working hours per week. The study issue examines how the IT capability in assigning employees and students ideal working hours affect their satisfaction which, in turn, correlates to how student-employee satisfaction leads to effective dining operations. The dependent variable is student-employee satisfaction that leads to effective dining operations, and in this study student-employee satisfaction is defined as way the students are treated with appreciation and overall work satisfaction and supportive environment which leads and reaches the requirements of the student-employees and through which they get satisfied. The areas to be improved to reach the factor of satisfaction would be fair pay and the learning new things and the meeting the required goals in a day (Srinivas, S. 2020) The independent variable is specifically the dining operations’ IT capability to assign student-employees a 20 hours per week work schedule that is commensurate with each student’s class/study and work availability scheduled hours for each week of an academic semester (Kumar, S. P. (2018)).

At the dining facility operations, the relationship between the variables is depicted when the Its capabilities like the easy way of serving the food, or contactless orders. These are the factors which show that the independent variable is effective with the dependent variable. Here as explained the dependent variable student employees and the employees known the supervisors depends upon the IT capabilities that make their works easy and seek for the factors that the more, they work and the less pay they get may not lead to the student employee satisfaction. So, the factors like the good pay, environment and the relationship of the student employee and the supervisors and the correct usage of the IT technology capabilities and improving the dining facilities at the on-campus level show the relationship of the independent and the dependent variables and how they depend upon each other.

The study’s hypothesis from the perspective of the student-employee is if the dining operations’ IT capability to assign student-employees a 20 hours per week work schedule that is commensurate with each student’s class/study and work availability scheduled hours for each week of an academic semester is promoted, then student-employee satisfaction that leads to effective dining operations will be achieved.

References

Kambli, A., Sinha, A. A., & Srinivas, S. (2020). Improving campus dining operations using capacity and queue management: a simulation-based case study. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management43, 62-70. Retrieved from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1447677019303274

Saha, S., & Kumar, S. P. (2018). Organizational culture as a moderator between affective commitment and job satisfaction: Empirical evidence from Indian public sector enterprises. International Journal of Public Sector Management. Retrieved from: https://www.emerald.com/insight/content/doi/10.1108/IJPSM-03-2017-0078/full/html

Stamper, J., & Barnes, T. (2019). Unsupervised MDP Value Selection for Automating ITS Capabilities. International Working Group on Educational Data Mining. Retrieved from: https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED539078

Wooten, R., Lambert, L. G., & Joung, H. W. (2018). Evaluation of students’ satisfaction with three all-you-can-eat university dining facilities. Journal of Foodservice Business Research21(5), 539-552. Retrieved from: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/15378020.2018.1483691?casa_token=izHT3OR0LsMAAAAA:dV3cjXYPcB_HzX3mI8vUXtFy3R0s7PlqWdZ3n22frNY0_1kr0p66-cts9CRpmuKkTlPlJNw1_DHR_O7t

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