Chat with us, powered by LiveChat Please see attached documents for instructions and use the template form for assignment ** ONLY use | Max paper
  

Please see attached documents for instructions and use the template form for assignment

** ONLY use documents and articles that are attached **

PREPARE

· Read the 
Week 3 Lesson
.

· Read Sections 
4.1
 through 
4.7
 of the textbook and carefully review the CRAPPO Interactive Activity within it.

· Review 

A Reference Guide to APA 7th Edition

 (Links to an external site.)

.

· Reflect on the reading strategy you used in the Evaluating Sources discussion this week, and then apply one reading strategy from the Academic & Career Skills tile in the SSC as you review the popular article.

· Use this 

Week 3: CRAAPO Test

 (Links to an external site.)


 (Links to an external site.)
 as a guide to evaluate the popular article you selected to support your Week 5 Wikipedia Stub Article Expansion final project.

· Review the 

Week 3: Model Popular Source Evaluation

 (Links to an external site.)


 (Links to an external site.)

· Review the 
grading rubric (Links to an external site.)
 for this assignment

Write

To complete your assignment, download the 

Week 3: Popular Source Evaluation Template

 (Links to an external site.)
 and respond to each question. In the template you will

· Provide an APA Style-formatted reference for your popular article.

LINK to Popular Source Article

https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/wonk/wp/2015/04/02/the-rise-and-maybe-fall-of-the-golden-parachute/

(Pictures of Article are also attached labeled under 1-5)

· Describe to what extent your popular article met each element of the CRAAPO test. Your description of each element should be at least two to three sentences.

· Discuss the overall strength of your popular article as an appropriate source for your Wikipedia stub article subtopics. Include specific details from your popular article to support your points.

· Explain why it is important to evaluate sources of information.

· Assess if your reading strategy changed as you read the popular article as opposed to the scholarly article. Why is the ability to adjust reading strategies important?

Week 3: Popular Source Evaluation Template

Your name: Click or tap here to enter text.

Date:

Directions: Use the
Week 3: CRAAPO Test
to evaluate your popular source, and then answer the questions below based on your evaluation. For help with this assignment, be sure to review the
Week 3: Model Assignment
. Save the completed template on your computer with a new file name and upload to Waypoint for grading. Reminder: Do not upload the CRAAPO Test to Waypoint for grading.

1. Provide an APA-formatted reference for your popular source.

Click or tap here to enter text.

2. Describe to what extent your popular article met each element of the CRAAPO test. Your description of each element should be at least 2 to 3 sentences.

Click or tap here to enter text.

3. Discuss the overall strength of your popular article as an appropriate source for your Wikipedia stub article subtopics. Include specific details from your popular article to support your points. Tip: Your response should be at least 5 sentences.

Click or tap here to enter text.

4. Explain why it is important to evaluate sources of information. Tip: Your response should be at least 5 sentences.

Click or tap here to enter text.

5. Assess if your reading strategy changed as you read the popular article as opposed to the scholarly article. Why is it important to adjust reading strategies? Tip: Your response should be at least 5 sentences.

Click or tap here to enter text.

Week 3: CRAAPO Test

Directions: The acronym CRAAPO stands for Currency (C), Relevance (R), Authority (A), Accuracy (A), Purpose (P), and Objectivity (O). Answer the questions below as a guide to evaluate your selected popular article for reliability and credibility. Do not submit this document for grading; this document is to help you complete your assignment.


Currency (C) measures the timeliness of information.


· When was the information published or last updated?

Click or tap here to enter text.

· Is the information current for your topic?

Click or tap here to enter “yes” or “no.”

· Are the links functional?

Click or tap here to enter “yes” or “no.”

Relevance (R) assesses the importance of the information for your needs.

· Does the information relate to your topic or answer your question?

Click or tap here to enter “yes” or “no.”

· Who is the intended audience?

Click or tap here to enter text.

· Is the information at an appropriate level (for example, not too simple or advanced for your needs)?

Click or tap here to enter “yes” or “no.”

· Have you looked at a variety of resources before determining this is one you will use?

Click or tap here to enter “yes” or “no.”

Authority (A) gauges the credentials and expertise of those who create or publish the information.

· Who is the author? If there is no author, what is the organization responsible for the content?

Click or tap here to enter text.

· Why is the author qualified to write on this topic?

Click or tap here to enter text.

· Is there contact information, such as a publisher or email address?

Click or tap here to enter “yes” or “no.”

· Does the URL reveal anything about the author or source (for example, .com, .edu, .gov, .org, .net)?

Click or tap here to enter text.

Accuracy (A) determines the reliability, truthfulness, and correctness of the informational content.

· What type of evidence is provided to support the information in this source? (Online popular sources often link to supporting sources rather than cite them. Newspaper and magazine articles may use interviews as evidence.)

Click or tap here to enter text.

· Has the information been reviewed?

Click or tap here to enter “yes” or “no.”

· Does the language or tone seem unbiased and free of emotion?

Click or tap here to enter “yes” or “no.”

· Are there spelling, grammatical, or other typographical errors?

Click or tap here to enter “yes” or “no.”

Purpose (P) evaluates the reason the information exists.

· What is the purpose of the information? To inform? Teach? Sell? Entertain? Persuade?

Click or tap here to enter text.

· Do authors or sponsors make their intentions or purpose clear?

Click or tap here to enter “yes” or “no.”

Objectivity (O) appraises the degree to which the information is free from bias and prejudice.

· Does the point of view appear objective and impartial?

Click or tap here to enter “yes” or “no.”

· Is the information fact? Opinion? Propaganda?

Click or tap here to enter text.

· Are there political, ideological, cultural, religious, institutional, or personal biases?

Click or tap here to enter “yes” or “no.”

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Chaay_Tee/iStock/Getty Images
Plus

Natasha learned that
checking the timeliness of
information, researching
scholarly and

4.1 What Is the CRAAPO Test?

Your Road Map to Success: Section 4.1

Learning Outcome 4.1: Describe what the CRAAPO test is and how it is used to evaluate information.

Why is this important?

Understanding the CRAAPO test will help you determine whether the information you encounter is
reliable and appropriate for your information need. As you gather information, you will often
encounter information that is outdated, misleading, inaccurate, or biased. Knowing how to apply
the CRAAPO test will help you identify and avoid such unreliable sources.

How does this relate to your success in this course?

Mastering this learning outcome will equip you with an efficient method for evaluating sources so
that the research you present in this course will be valid and reliable, reflecting your developing
information literacy skills.

The explosive growth and use of the Internet has had a profound effect on how people access, interpret, and use
information. In 2019 over 4 billion people used the Internet worldwide (International Telecommunication Union,
2019). People turn to the Internet to find information on everything from the location of restaurants to instructions on
starting their own business to possible reasons for that curious rash on their big toe. In addition, of course, students
turn to the Internet to find resources for their academic papers.

People also use the Internet to publish new information quickly and easily on blogs and other platforms. This ease of
publishing by anyone, while good for self-expression and the sharing of ideas, calls into question the reliability of
what can be found on the Internet. When anyone can publish anything, a great deal of unreliable information will be
created.

Student Profile: Natasha

Natasha was feeling confident when she submitted her final paper for her
Health & Wellness Promotion class. She found several scholarly articles and
ebooks in the library, as well as plenty of resources on the Internet, to back up
her claims about the best approaches to teaching college students healthy
eating. When her paper comes back, however, she is dismayed to see she
earned only a C. Her instructor deducted points for the resources she found on
the Internet and the arguments she based on those sources.

Natasha’s instructor had clearly stated that, in addition to scholarly material,
resources found on the Internet were permitted for this assignment. Why was
she docked points? Her instructor’s feedback includes comments such as “This
teaching method is no longer used by health promotion professionals because

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authoritative sources,
and accurately citing
facts are all important
steps in writing a well-
rounded academic paper.

recent research does not support it”; “According to whom?”; and “Please back
up with facts, not opinions.” At the end of her paper, Natasha sees a final
comment: “When researching on the Internet, use only current information
from authoritative entities, such as the American College Health Association,
the Centers for Disease Control, or the National Library of Medicine’s
PubMed.” Natasha used information from nutrition blogs by self-proclaimed
“health experts” and an article written by a registered dietitian in 1991. As a result, the claims she made
based on those sources were biased, outdated, and probably inaccurate.

Being able to evaluate information found on the web is critical not only for your academic life but also for your
workplace and personal life. But given that most entities—from highly authoritative scientific organizations to
purveyors of financial scams—publish on the web, how do you know whether the information you find there is
sound?

The CRAAPO test is a list of questions you can use to evaluate a source’s currency, relevance, authority, accuracy,
purpose, and objectivity (Table 4.1). It is adapted from the CRAAP test first developed by the Meriam Library at
California State University, Chico. When used in conjunction with your critical thinking skills, the CRAAPO test can
be an effective method for determining the validity of a resource, whether published on the web, in print, or in any
other format.

Table 4.1: The CRAAPO test

Currency: The timeliness of the information
When was the information published or posted?
Has the information been revised or updated?
Is the information current for your topic?
Are the links functional?

Relevance: The importance of the information for your needs
Does the information relate to your topic or answer your question?
Who is the intended audience?
Is the information at an appropriate level (i.e., not too elementary or advanced for your needs)?
Have you looked at a variety of resources before determining this is one you will use?
How does this source relate to other sources and information gathered so far? Is it new information, or is
it redundant when compared to your other sources?

Authority: The source of the information
Who is the author/publisher/source/sponsor?
What are the author’s credentials or organizational affiliations?
What are the author’s qualifications to write on the topic?
Is there contact information, such as a publisher or email address?
Does the URL reveal anything about the author or source (e.g., .com, .edu, .gov, .org, .net)?

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Accuracy: The reliability, truthfulness, and correctness of the informational content
Where does the information come from?
Is the information supported by evidence?
Has the information been reviewed or refereed?
Can you verify any of the information in another source or from personal knowledge?
Does the language or tone seem biased and free of emotion?
Are there spelling, grammatical, or other typographical errors?

Purpose: The reason the information exists
Why was the information created?
What is the purpose of the information? To inform? Teach? Sell? Entertain? Persuade?
Do authors/sponsors make their intentions or purpose clear?

Objectivity: The degree to which the information is free from bias and prejudice
Does the point of view appear objective and impartial?
Is the information fact? Opinion? Propaganda?
Are there political, ideological, cultural, religious, institutional, or personal biases?

Again, the CRAAPO test can be used to evaluate any format or type of resource; however, the remainder of this
module shows you how to use it to evaluate information you find on the Internet.

Before exploring the CRAAPO test, let’s check back in with Irwin as he begins his quest for information online.
Irwin’s assignment requires that he use his course textbook, at least two scholarly sources, and one source of his
choice in the development of his paper. Irwin has already extracted the information he needs from his textbook, and
he has three scholarly articles. For his last resource, he decides that he would like to try locating information from a
podcast or website on social networking. In the following sections of this chapter, we’ll see how Irwin uses the
CRAAPO test to locate solid resources for his paper.

Section 4.1 Knowledge Check Quiz

1. What does the “C” stand for in “CRAAPO test”?
A. credentials
B. currency
C. citation

2. The CRAAPO test can be used to __________ a source.
A. evaluate
B. understand
C. cite

Answers
1 (B), 2 (A)

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anyaberkut/iStock/Getty Images Plus

Objective and subjective information are
both important for presenting facts and
analysis. Gathering data from graphs,
tables, and so on may provide the
foundation of the topic, while logical

4.7 How Do I Evaluate a Source’s Objectivity?

Your Road Map to Success: Section 4.7

Learning Outcome 4.7: Identify the criteria used to evaluate the objectivity of information.

Why is this important?

Recognizing bias, personal interests, and opinions in the information you encounter will help you
separate fact from fiction. Malik, for example, is researching options for his daughter’s education.
He comes across several blog posts that boast students who are homeschooled are happier, safer,
and more interested in learning than students who attend schools, but these posts offer little
evidence to support their claims. Malik realizes he needs unbiased evidence to make an informed
decision about what is best for his daughter’s education.

How does this relate to your success in the course?

Mastering this learning outcome will help you locate information that is based on verifiable
evidence free from overt bias, judgments, and opinions.

When searching for credible information, one final consideration should be whether the information is presented
objectively. Objectivity refers to the degree to which information is free from bias and prejudice. A source that
presents information objectively allows the evidence to speak for itself without accompanying it with an
interpretation based on opinion or prejudice. Although different interpretations can be useful and enlightening, it’s
important to bear in mind that they are arguable.

Distinguish Between Subjective and Objective Information

When discussing information, the terms “subjective” and
“objective” identify the author’s perspective. Objective
information is based on evidence that can be observed, measured,
and verified by others. It is unbiased and carries no judgment. In
contrast, subjective information is someone’s belief, opinion, or
judgment on a particular topic. It can be based on facts; however,
it’s expressed as someone’s interpretation of those facts. For
example, consider the editorial section of a newspaper. Editorials
are opinion or analysis pieces written to present the editorial staff’s
views on a particular topic or issue. Editorials may contain many
facts, but these facts are carefully chosen and presented in language
meant to persuade the reader. Subjective information can also be
found in testimonials, reviews, personal essays, and
autobiographies.

On the other hand, objective information is presented without
persuasion or judgment. It is merely a statement of fact or evidence
without interpretation. Scientific research studies are considered

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analysis of that data may be helpful in
presenting arguments.

objective, although they can still contain errors, inconsistencies,
and misinterpretation. The data that researchers gather throughout
the course of a study is considered objective; however, the
conclusions and interpretations researchers draw from the data may be arguable and subjective. Objective
information can also be found in encyclopedias, almanacs, and other reference materials. Table 4.4 shows the
differences between objective and subjective information.

Table 4.4: Differences between objective and subjective information

Objective Subjective

Information Can be observed with the senses (seen,
heard, touched, smelled)
Factual
Can be counted, described, reproduced
The same from multiple reporters
As close to truth as we can get

Belief, suspicion
Opinion, judgment, assumption
Varies (e.g., from person to person,
from day to day)
Not verifiable
May be untrue

Language I documented . . .
We counted . . .
We observed . . .
This is what she did . . .
He said . . .

He did not want to . . .
We would like to . . .
I thought . . .
We feel . . .
She seemed . . .

Understanding the difference between subjective and objective information will help you select proper resources for
your research. When your research question requires you to develop an evidence-based argument, base your claims
on factual information and data. However, when you are exploring the broader conversation on your chosen topic
and trying to discern what the various viewpoints represent, you may need to engage closely with subjective
information.

Let’s take a look at an example.

In August 2020 the U.S. unemployment rate fell from 10.2% to 8.4%. Economists commenting on the
report considered the numbers “worrisome” and indicative of an economic recovery that would likely
prove to be “sluggish and uneven” (Rugaber, 2020, paras. 3, 4).

The change in the unemployment rate represents information that is objective. It is a quantifiable fact that the U.S.
unemployment rate fell from 10.2% to 8.4% during the time period specified. However, while the economists’
statements were based on objective information and their own expertise, their interpretation of the numbers
represents subjective information. Analyzing the same data, others might disagree with the economists’ predictions
and draw different conclusions.

That’s because, whereas raw data is objective, analysis of that data is subjective. Analytical information examines
and interprets data, often to support a claim or draw a conclusion. It is stronger than opinion, because opinion doesn’t
always offer solid reasons, whereas analysis is based on evidence. You can think of it as focusing on the why or how
of the data. For instance, a data-based forecast of the possible landfall locations of a hurricane, its intensity, and
potential damage would be considered analytical information. The forecast uses current factual data but also makes
predictions and judgments that may prove inaccurate. Analytical information can be found in sources such as books,
articles, and some websites.

Much of the information you encounter in your research will be a combination of objective and subjective
information, data, and analysis of that data. Think critically about whether the sources you encounter are interpreting

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objective information logically and fairly or there appears to be an effort to push an opinion that may not be
supported by objective information.

Identify Bias

All people are biased by their education and personal experiences; thus, it isn’t possible to write from a completely
neutral point of view. Therefore, other than pure statistics, most information is at least somewhat biased, and some
information is more biased than others. For example, a claim that violent crime is decreasing in the United States,
backed by data from the Federal Bureau of Investigation, is likely to be far less biased than a claim that America is
more violent than it was half a century ago, backed by three or four personal anecdotes. Think of bias as a spectrum
rather than a characteristic that is either present or not.

As you’re conducting research, be aware that most people find an author’s bias especially difficult to detect when it
aligns with their own. This relates to confirmation bias, which we explored in Chapter 2. You might strongly agree
with what an author has to say, but this should not deter you from looking closely at each piece of evidence the
author presents, as well as taking the time to determine where the evidence is coming from. Bias is not necessarily
bad. As long as you recognize that it’s always present, and you look for information that represents a different
perspective, you’ll increase your chances of exploring all sides of an issue and drawing less prejudiced conclusions.

Although information in any format can be biased, information you find on obscure Internet sites may be especially
prone to personal bias. We explained earlier that anyone can publish to the web without any regulation, so people can
post information promoting their own personal agenda, declaring their viewpoint, or selling their product or service.
People may even deliberately post misinformation that is intended to obscure the truth.

Quick Tip!

Inflammatory Language

Inflammatory language is negative in nature and consists of a selection of words a writer uses to stir up
emotions such as passion, anger, or hostility from the reader. The intent in using such language is generally to
get an emotional reaction from the reader. Be wary of including sources that use this type of language to
convey their message. Neutral-toned sources will more effectively address your information need.

Bias, by nature, influences the objectivity of information. Let’s look at a few examples.

Political bias: Information with a political bias is intended to persuade readers to vote for a certain
candidate or support the ideas of a political party.
Ideological bias: Ideology refers to the system of beliefs, or the worldview, of an individual or a group of
people. Individuals and organizations may publish in order to promote an ideology—explicitly or subtly. For
example, the ideological views of a news organization can affect the stories it chooses to produce and the
side of a story it tends to favor. An author also might write to promote the beliefs of a particular religion.
Personal bias: As noted earlier, individuals are influenced by a variety of personal factors that lead to bias
in the information they disseminate.

To identify bias, look for such characteristics as the following:

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emotional, strong, or inflammatory language
claims that are not supported by evidence
distorted facts or facts presented out of context
one-sided arguments
lack of evidence that contradicts the viewpoint
personal attacks
claims of certainty or absolutes
unclear or undisclosed relationships between content and advertisements (does the content seem to be
related to or promoting the products that are advertised on the site?)

Irwin reflects on the interplay between purpose and objectivity as he takes one final look at the webpage he decided
to rule out for his research into social networks. The webpage does present useful pieces of objective information,
such as statistics on how social media marketing has helped increase sales in a variety of industries. However,
because the webpage’s purpose is to promote various workshops, that data is interpreted in a way that Irwin finds
highly opinionated. The author suggests that there is one best way to implement social media marketing strategies
but, instead of revealing what that way is, recommends enrolling in the company’s workshops. This is misleading
and calls the objective information into question as well. Using the CRAAPO test has helped Irwin feel empowered
to get to the truth. Since he’s still curious about using a podcast in his paper, he decides to see if can find one that
meets his research needs.

Section 4.7 Knowledge Check Quiz

1. Using stock market and consumer data from the past 6 months, BestStocks.com predicts that
technology stocks will outperform other sectors in the coming year. What type of information is this?

A. objective information
B. propaganda
C. analytical information

2. Shonda writes on her blog that for 6 weeks after recovering from COVID-19, she experienced
constant fatigue. What type of information is this?

A. objective information
B. subjective information
C. verifiable information

3. Professor Taylor declares that the best works of literature have been written by men. This is an
example of __________.

A. an opinion
B. analytical information
C. political bias

Answers
1 (C), 2 (B), 3 (A)

Use what you learned about the CRAAPO test to help Neylan, a university student, evaluate non-scholarly
sources for her research project in the following activity.

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Applying the

CRAAPO Test

START

A Reference Guide to APA 7th Edition

Adapted from the UAGC Writing Center APA 7th Ed. References Guide

Articles

*When citing between two or 20 authors, list last name followed by a comma and initials for each one, and precede the

final author’s name with an ampersand (&). When citing 21 authors or more, list the first 19, then precede the name of

the final author with an ellipses (…).

Online journal article with DOI

Format:

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of article. Publication Title, volume number(issue), pp–pp. https://doi.org/…

Example:

Beattie, B. R., & LaFrance, J. T. (2006). The law of demand versus diminishing marginal utility. Review of Agricultural

Economics, 28(2), 263–271. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9353.2006.00286.x

Online journal article without DOI, found in UAGC Library database

Format:

Author, A. (Year). Title of article. Publication Title, volume number(issue), pp–pp.

Example:

Collins, M. E., Garlington, S., & Cooney, K. (2015). Relieving human suffering: Compassion in social policy. Journal of

Sociology & Social Welfare, 42(1), 95–120.

Magazine article retrieved online

Format:

Author, A. (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Publication Title, volume(issue), pp–pp. URL

Example:

Clay, R. A. (2014, December). Taking action against Ebola. Monitor on Psychology, 45(11), 14.

https://www.apa.org/monitor/2014/12/ebola

Newspaper article retrieved online

Format:

Author, A. (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Newspaper Title. URL

Example:

McAllister, J. (2017, July 5). Beaver Stadium prepares for inaugural concert. Centre Daily Times.

https://www.centredaily.com/entertainment/this-weekend/article159672269.html

Blog post

Format:

Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of blog post. Blog Name. URL

Example:

Hardy, M. (2010, October 29). E-ZPass is a life-saver (literally). Freakonomics. http://freakonomics.com/2010/10/29/e-

zpass-is-a-life-saver-literally/

Webpages and Websites

*A webpage will never be the home page of the URL. It is part of a greater whole that is the website. When author and

site name are the same, omit the site name from the source element. Provide the most specific date possible. Include a

retrieval date only when the content is designed to change over time and the page is not archived.

Webpage with an author

Format:

Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of webpage. Site Name. URL

Example:

Lad, K. (2016, August 28). An overview of the colorful traditional Mexican clothing. Buzzle.

http://www.buzzle.com/articles/traditional-mexican-clothing.html

Webpage with no individual author

Format:

Organization Name. (Year, Month Day). Title of webpage. Site Name (if different than organization). URL

Example:

National Nurses United. (n.d.). What employers should do to protect nurses from Zika.

https://www.nationalnursesunited.org/what-employers-should-do-to-protect-rns-from-zika

Webpage with no author or organization

Format:

Title of webpage. (Year, Month Day). URL

Example:

Freud’s structural theory: The id, the ego, and the superego. (n.d.). www.vakkur.com/psy/freud.html

Report: Corporate/government, group author, retrieved online

*If a report, series, or issue number is given, provide this in parentheses after the title. Describe less common forms of

reports in square brackets after the title like the example below. If the report number is available, and the report needs a

special description, place the parentheses before the brackets in the reference entry.

Format:

Name of Group. (Year, Month Day). Title of report (Report number, if available) [Description, if needed].

Publisher Name (omit if the same name as group author). DOI or URL

Example:

U.S. Department of Homeland Security. (2019, July). The DHS strategic plan: Fiscal years 2020–2024 [Agency strategy

publication]. https://www.dhs.gov/sites/default/files/publications/19_0702_plcy_dhs-strategic-plan-fy20-

24.pdf

Article on a news website

Format:

Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Site Name. URL

Example:

Dunn, J. (2020, January 6). Recycling collectors bothered by messy bins. CNN. https://www.cnn.com/article/recycling-

collectors-bothered-by-messy-bins

  • Online journal article with DOI
  • Online journal article without DOI, found in UAGC Library database
  • Magazine article retrieved online
  • Newspaper article retrieved online
  • A Reference Guide to APA 7th Edition
    • Articles
  • Blog post
  • Webpage with an author
  • Webpage with no individual author
  • Webpage with no author or organization
  • Webpages and Websites
  • Report: Corporate/government, group author, retrieved online
  • Article on a news website
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