Chat with us, powered by LiveChat needhelp with homework question Word length effect experiment: Method notes Hypothesis: · Long | Max paper
  

needhelp with homework question


Word length effect experiment: Method notes

Hypothesis:

· Longer words will lead to lower response accuracy, while shorter words will lead to higher response accuracy.

Operational Definitions:

· Word length: Independent variable with four levels.

1. One syllable words

2. Two syllable words

3. Three syllable words

4. Four syllable words

· Working memory performance:

· Working memory performance will be measured as the proportion of correctly-remembered words for each given trial. Note that in order for a word to be considered “correctly remembered”, the subject must get the word and its order in the list of presented words correct.

Participants:

· 19 students selected from a classroom at Montclair State University

· Demographic information – to be derived in class

Apparatus:

· Each participant used a computer to complete the experiment.

· The word length effect experiment was programmed and run using an internet-based platform.

· All words and prompts were displayed in black text in a 14.8 cm x 9.9 cm white rectangular space outlined with a thin black line.

· Below the prompt field, twelve response buttons were present, oriented in four columns of three buttons. Each button was 3.7 cm in width and 0.9 cm in height, with a dark grey fill.

· Prior to the start of a trial, the response buttons did not contain words

· After stimulus words were presented in a given trial, the response buttons featured words in white text.

· Below the response buttons, another button was present, centered on the screen, labelled “Start Next Trial” in white text. The start trial button had the same dimensions and coloring as the response buttons.

· Above the prompt field, a line of text informed the participant how many trials are left in the current phase of the experiment.


Procedure:

· Within-subjects design – each subject will be exposed to all levels of the independent variable.

· The experiment will consist of a total of 28 trials, or seven trials for each level of the independent variable. Prior to each trial, the computer will randomly select the level of the IV that will be presented in that trial.

· Each trial within the experiment was carried out in two phases:

1. Phase I: Word presentation

· After the subject presses the “Start next trial” button, a “+” sign will be presented in the middle of the screen.

· Then, a list of 5 words will be presented sequentially for 1 second each

· Words are randomly selected from the list of possible words for a given level of the IV. Without replacement in a given trial, however words from the list can be used again in future trials.

2. Phase II: Recognition memory

· After the presentation of the stimulus words, subjects will be required to press response buttons to indicate which words they think they saw in the list that was just presented. Some of the response buttons will present words that were present in the list, others will present words that did not appear in the list (“lures”).

· Once the subject has responded, the response buttons will again become blank.

· The subject will be required to press the “Start next trial” button in order to continue the experiment.

· The entire experiment should take approximately 20 – 30 minutes


One syllable words
:

Bear

Bee

Book

Church

France

Hour

Maine

Math

Peas

Plum

Sage

Tin


Two syllable words
:

Apple

Beetle

Copper

Decade

Journal

Kansas

Parsley

Peru

Physics

Spinach

Temple

Tiger


Three syllable words
:

Banana

Broccoli

Cathedral

Century

Chemistry

Cilantro

Delaware

Dragonfly

Gorilla

Newspaper

Platinum

Switzerland


Four syllable words
:

Asparagus

Australia

Biology

Caterpillar

Massachusetts

Millisecond

Monastery

Oregano

Periodical

Rhinoceros

Titanium

Watermelon

RUNNING HEAD: WORD LENGTH EFFECTS 1

Word Length Effects

Cindy Monroy

Montclair State University

Professor Alan Pehrson

PSYC 301

November 15, 2021

RUNNING HEAD: WORD LENGTH EFFECTS 2

Working memory is defined as the small amounts of information a person is able to

withhold in their mind at a time and how they are able to use this information to help them with

cognitive tasks. Therefore, the word length effect greatly ties into working memory as the word

length effect refers to how much more challenging it becomes to recall sets of longer length words

or how much more time it takes to recall these longer words. In this study we will be conducting

an experiment amongst 19 students selected from a classroom at Montclair State University to

examine if longer words will lead to lower response accuracy, while shorter words will lead to a

higher response accuracy. This experiment will be measuring word length by giving students 4

different sets of words containing one, two, three, or four syllable words at a time. It will also be

examining one’s working memory performance by accounting how many “correctly remembered”

words the subject completes and the correct order of the word.

Method

Participants

The study conducted consisted of 19 students from the psychology program at Montclair

State University. 13 of the participants were female, 5 were male, and 1 was NA. The participants

were given a consent form prior to beginning this experiment. Please note that this experiment

did not go through the process of IRB approval. The data generated here is to be used solely for

the purpose of instruction, and will never be published. Therefore, this experiment is not

considered research and IRB approval is not necessary. The final sample consisted of 13

Caucasions, 4 Hispanics, 1 Asian, and 1 NA.

RUNNING HEAD: WORD LENGTH EFFECTS 3

Apparatus

Each participant used a computer to complete this experiment. The word length effect experiment

was programmed and run using an internet-based platform. All words and prompts were displayed

in black text in a 14.8 cm x 9.9 cm white rectangular space outlined with a thin black line. Below

the prompt field, twelve response buttons were present, oriented in four columns of three buttons.

Each button was 3.7 cm in width and 0.9 cm in height, with a dark grey fill. Prior to the start of a

trial, the response buttons did not contain words. After stimulus words were presented in a given

trial, the response buttons featured words in white text. Below the response buttons, another button

was present, centered on the screen, labelled “Start Next Trial” in white text. The start trial button

had the same dimensions and coloring as the response buttons. Above the prompt field, a line of

text informed the participant how many trials are left in the current phase of the experiment.

Procedure

This experiment was conducted as a within subjects design. Each participant will be exposed to all

levels of the independent variable. The experiment will consist of a total of 28 trials, or seven trials

for each level of the independent variable. Prior to each trial, the computer will randomly select the

level of the IV that will be presented in that trial. Each trial within the experiment was carried out

in two phases: Phase I: Word presentation. After the subject presses the “Start next trial” button, a

“+” sign will be presented in the middle of the screen. Then, a list of 5 words will be presented

sequentially for 1 second each. Words are randomly selected from the list of possible words for a

given level of the IV. Without replacement in a given trial, however words from the list can be

used again in future trials. Phase II: Recognition memory. After the presentation of the stimulus

words, subjects will be required to press response buttons to indicate which words they think they

saw in the list that was just presented. Some of the response buttons will present words that were

RUNNING HEAD: WORD LENGTH EFFECTS 4

present in the list, others will present words that did not appear in the list (“lures”). Once the

subject has responded, the response buttons will again become blank. The subject will be required

to press the “Start next trial” button in order to continue the experiment. The entire experiment

should take approximately 20 – 30 minutes.

Raw Data

ID 1 Syllable 2 Syllable 3 Syllable 4 Syllable Age Ethnicity Gender Demographic Descriptive Statistics
1 0.8857143 0.54285717 0.45714286 0.4857143 21 White or Caucasian Male Age
2 0.8857143 0.94285715 0.7714286 0.5714286 19 White or Caucasian Female Mean SD
3 1 0.94285715 0.94285715 0.7714286 21 White or Caucasian Female 21.6666666667 1.9097274213
4 0.71428573 0.8 0.51428574 0.37142858 20 White or Caucasian Female
5 0.71428573 0.5714286 0.6 0.4857143 24 White or Caucasian Female Gender
6 0.94285715 0.6857143 0.6857143 0.51428574 21 White or Caucasian, Spanish, Hispanic, or Latinx Female Label Frequency Percent
7 0.71428573 0.62857145 0.45714286 0.42857143 20 Spanish, Hispanic, or Latinx Female Female 13 68.42%
8 0.4 0.22857143 0.31428573 0.2857143 21 White or Caucasian Female Male 5 26.32%
9 0.9714286 0.6571429 0.6 0.25714287 21 White or Caucasian Male NA 1 5.26%
10 0.94285715 0.94285715 0.7714286 0.71428573 25 White or Caucasian Female Grand Total 19 100.00%
11 0.94285715 0.82857144 0.6571429 0.6571429 24 White or Caucasian Male
12 0.71428573 0.4857143 0.42857143 0.31428573 23 Spanish, Hispanic, or Latinx Female
13 0.8 0.45714286 0.51428574 0.54285717 19 White or Caucasian Female Label Frequency Percent
14 0.8 0.6 0.37142858 0.2857143 25 Spanish, Hispanic, or Latinx Female Asian 1 5.26%
15 0.94285715 0.6571429 0.42857143 0.42857143 23 Asian Female NA 1 5.26%
16 0.51428574 0.34285715 0.17142858 0.25714287 22 White or Caucasian Male Spanish, Hispanic, or Latinx 3 15.79%
17 0.5714286 0.5714286 0.51428574 0.2857143 20 White or Caucasian Female White or Caucasian 13 68.42%
18 0.6 0.45714286 0.22857143 0.22857143 21 White or Caucasian Male White or Caucasian, Spanish, Hispanic, or Latinx 1 5.26%
19 0.4857143 0.54285717 0.31428573 0.31428573 NA NA NA Grand Total 19 100.00%

Inferential Statistics

Descriptive Statistics
N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation
1 Syllable 19 0.40 1.00 0.7654 0.18334
2 Syllable 19 0.23 0.94 0.6256 0.19907
3 Syllable 19 0.17 0.94 0.5128 0.19737
4 Syllable 19 0.23 0.77 0.4316 0.16465
One Way Repeated Measures ANOVA
Measure: MEASURE_1
Source Type III Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.
Word_length Sphericity Assumed 1.196 3 0.399 47.792 0.000
Error(Word_length) Sphericity Assumed 0.450 54 0.008
Tukey Post Hoc test
Measure: MEASURE_1
(I) Word_length Mean Difference (I-J) Std. Error Sig.b 95% Confidence Interval for Differenceb
Lower Bound Upper Bound
1 2 .140* 0.032 0.000 0.074 0.206
3 .253* 0.031 0.000 0.188 0.318
4 .334* 0.032 0.000 0.266 0.402
2 3 .113* 0.026 0.000 0.059 0.167
4 .194* 0.032 0.000 0.128 0.260
3 4 .081* 0.025 0.004 0.029 0.133
error: Content is protected !!