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two paragraphs on each conclusion please

Cite the page number from the book

from chapters 14 and 15

More than 500 words double spaced and please no plagiarism and type the answer 

ANSWER THESE QUESTIONS NO  PLAGIARISM 

Essentials of
Sociology
A Down-to-Earth Approach

Thirteenth Edition

James M. Henslin
Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville

330 Hudson Street, NY NY 10013

Acknowledgments of third party content appear on pages CR-1–CR-7, which constitutes an
extension of this copyright page. Cultural Diversity Around the World: Doing Business in the
Global Village box contains art with the following credit: Demashita! Powerpuff Girls Z © 2009
Cartoon Network, Toei Animation & Aniplex. All Rights Reserved. THE POWERPUFF GIRLS
and all related characters and elements are trademarks of and © Cartoon Network.

Copyright © 2019, 2017, 2014, 2012 by James M. Henslin. All Rights Reserved. Printed in the
United States of America. This publication is protected by copyright, and permission should
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Names: Henslin, James M., author.
Title: Essentials of sociology : a down-to-earth approach / James M. Henslin,
Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville.
Description: Thirteenth edition. | Boston : Pearson, [2019]
Identifiers: LCCN 2017048320 (print) | LCCN 2017052388 (ebook) | ISBN
9780134740041 (ebook) | ISBN 9780134736570 (student edition : alk. paper) |
ISBN 9780134740003 (a la carte : alk. paper)
Subjects: LCSH: Sociology.
Classification: LCC HM586 (ebook) | LCC HM586 .H43 2019 (print) | DDC 301— dc23
LC record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2017048320

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To my fellow sociologists,
who do such creative research on social life and
who communicate the sociological imagination
to generations of students. With my sincere
admiration and appreciation.

1 The Sociological Perspective 1

2 Culture 38

3 Socialization 68

4 Social Structure and Social
Interaction 101

5 Social Groups and Formal
Organizations 133

6 Deviance and Social Control 162

7 Global Stratification 195

8 Social Class in the United States 228

9 Race and Ethnicity 263

10 Gender and Age 303

11 Politics and the Economy 345

12 Marriage and Family 381

13 Education and Religion 415

14 Population and Urbanization 451

15 Social Change and the Environment 488

Brief Contents

iv

v

To the Student … from the Author xviii

To the Instructor … from the Author xix

About the Author xxxvi

1 The Sociological Perspective 1
The Sociological Perspective 3

Seeing the Broader Social Context 3
The Global Context—and the Local 4

Origins of Sociology 4
Tradition versus Science 5
Auguste Comte and Positivism 5
Herbert Spencer and Social Darwinism 6
Karl Marx and Class Conflict 6
Emile Durkheim and Social Integration 7

APPLYING DURKHEIM 7

Max Weber and the Protestant Ethic 8
RELIGION AND THE ORIGIN OF CAPITALISM 8

Sociology in North America 9
Sexism at the Time: Women in Early Sociology 9
Racism at the Time: W. E. B. Du Bois 10
Jane Addams: Sociologist and Social Reformer 11
Talcott Parsons and C. Wright Mills: Theory

versus Reform 12
The Continuing Tension: Basic, Applied,

and Public Sociology 12
BASIC SOCIOLOGY 12 • APPLIED SOCIOLOGY 12 •
PUBLIC SOCIOLOGY 12

Theoretical Perspectives in Sociology 14
Symbolic Interactionism 14

SYMBOLS IN EVERYDAY LIFE 14 • IN SUM 15 •
APPLYING SYMBOLIC INTERACTIONISM 15 • IN SUM 16

Functional Analysis 16
ROBERT MERTON AND FUNCTIONALISM 16 • IN SUM 17 •
APPLYING FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS 17 • IN SUM 17

Conflict Theory 18
KARL MARX AND CONFLICT THEORY 18 • CONFLICT
THEORY TODAY 19 • FEMINISTS AND CONFLICT
THEORY 19 • APPLYING CONFLICT THEORY 19 •
IN SUM 19

Putting the Theoretical Perspectives Together 19
Levels of Analysis: Macro and Micro 19
How Theory and Research Work Together 20

Doing Sociological Research 21

A Research Model 21
Selecting a Topic 21
Defining the Problem 22
Reviewing the Literature 22
Formulating a Hypothesis 22
Choosing a Research Method 22

Collecting the Data 22
Analyzing the Results 23
Sharing the Results 23

Research Methods (Designs) 24
Surveys 25

SELECTING A SAMPLE 25 • ASKING NEUTRAL
QUESTIONS 26 • TYPES OF QUESTIONS 27 •
ESTABLISHING RAPPORT 27

Participant Observation (Fieldwork) 28
Case Studies 29
Secondary Analysis 30
Analysis of Documents 30
Experiments 30
Unobtrusive Measures 32

Gender in Sociological Research 32

Ethics in Sociological Research 33
Protecting the Subjects: The Brajuha Research 33
Misleading the Subjects: The Humphreys Research 34

Trends Shaping the Future of Sociology 34
Tension in Sociology: Research versus

Social Reform 35
THREE STAGES IN SOCIOLOGY 35 • DIVERSITY OF
ORIENTATIONS 35

Globalization 35
HOW GLOBALIZATION APPLIES TO THIS TEXT 35

Summary and Review 36
Thinking Critically about Chapter 1 37

2 Culture 38
What Is Culture? 40

Culture and Taken-for-Granted Orientations
to Life 40
IN SUM 42

Practicing Cultural Relativism 43
ATTACK ON CULTURAL RELATIVISM 44

Components of Symbolic Culture 46
Gestures 46

MISUNDERSTANDING AND OFFENSE 46 •
UNIVERSAL GESTURES? 47

Language 47
LANGUAGE ALLOWS HUMAN EXPERIENCE TO BE
CUMULATIVE 48 • LANGUAGE PROVIDES A SOCIAL
OR SHARED PAST 48 • LANGUAGE PROVIDES A SOCIAL
OR SHARED FUTURE 48 • LANGUAGE ALLOWS SHARED
PERSPECTIVES 48 • LANGUAGE ALLOWS SHARED,
GOAL-DIRECTED BEHAVIOR 49 • IN SUM 50

Language and Perception: The Sapir-Whorf
Hypothesis 50

Values, Norms, and Sanctions 51
Folkways, Mores, and Taboos 52

Contents

vi Contents

Many Cultural Worlds 53
Subcultures 53
Countercultures 56

Values in U.S. Society 56
An Overview of U.S. Values 56
Value Clusters 57
Value Contradictions 58
An Emerging Value Cluster 58

IN SUM 59

When Values Clash 60
Values as Distorting Lenses 60
“Ideal” Culture Versus “Real” Culture 60

Cultural Universals 60
IN SUM 61

Sociobiology and Human Behavior 61
IN SUM 62

Technology in the Global Village 62
New Technology 62
Cultural Lag and Cultural Change 64
Technology and Cultural Leveling 64

CULTURAL DIFFUSION 64 • COMMUNICATION AND
TRAVEL 65 • CULTURAL LEVELING 65

Summary and Review 66
Thinking Critically about Chapter 2 67

3 Socialization 68
Society Makes Us Human 70

Feral Children 71
Isolated Children 71
Institutionalized Children 72

THE ORPHANAGE EXPERIMENT IN THE UNITED STATES 72 •
THE ORPHANAGE EXPERIMENT IN ROMANIA 73 • TIMING
AND HUMAN DEVELOPMENT: THE CASE OF GENIE 73 •
IN SUM 73

Deprived Animals 73
IN SUM: SOCIETY MAKES US HUMAN 74

Socialization into the Self and Mind 74
Cooley and the Looking-Glass Self 74

IN SUM 75

Mead and Role Taking 75
IN SUM 76

Piaget and the Development of Reasoning 76
Global Aspects of the Self and Reasoning 77

Learning Personality, Morality, and Emotions 77
Freud and the Development of Personality 77

SOCIOLOGICAL EVALUATION 78

Kohlberg and the Development of Morality 78
KOHLBERG’S THEORY 78 • CRITICISMS OF
KOHLBERG 79 • RESEARCH WITH BABIES 79 •
THE CULTURAL RELATIVITY OF MORALITY 79

Socialization into Emotions 79
GLOBAL EMOTIONS 79 • EXPRESSING EMOTIONS:
“GENDER RULES” 79 • THE EXTENT OF “FEELING
RULES” 80 • WHAT WE FEEL 80 • RESEARCH
NEEDED 80

Society within Us: The Self and Emotions
as a Social Mirror 81
IN SUM 81

Socialization into Gender 81
Learning the Gender Map 81
Gender Messages in the Family 82

PARENTS 82 • TOYS AND PLAY 82 • SAME-SEX
PARENTS 84

Gender Messages from Peers 84
Gender Messages in the Mass Media 85

TELEVISION, MOVIES, AND CARTOONS 85 • VIDEO
GAMES 85 • ADVERTISING 85 • IN SUM 86

Agents of Socialization 86
The Family 87

SOCIAL CLASS AND TYPE OF WORK 87 • SOCIAL
CLASS AND PLAY 87

The Neighborhood 87
Religion 88
Day Care 88
The School 89
Peer Groups 90
The Workplace 92

Resocialization 92
Total Institutions 92

Socialization through the Life Course 94

Childhood (from birth to about age 12) 94
IN SUM 95

Adolescence (ages 13–17) 95
Transitional Adulthood (ages 18–29) 96

“BRING YOUR PARENTS TO WORK DAY” 96

The Middle Years (ages 30–65) 96
THE EARLY MIDDLE YEARS (AGES 30–49) 96 • THE LATER
MIDDLE YEARS (AGES 50–65) 97

The Older Years (about age 65 on) 97
THE TRANSITIONAL OLDER YEARS (AGES 65–74) 97 •
THE LATER OLDER YEARS (AGE 75 OR SO) 97

Are We Prisoners of Socialization? 98

Summary and Review 99
Thinking Critically about Chapter 3 100

4 Social Structure and Social
Interaction 101

Levels of Sociological Analysis 103
Macrosociology and Microsociology 103

The Macrosociological Perspective: Social Structure 104

The Sociological Significance of Social Structure 104
IN SUM 105

Components of Social Structure 105
Culture 106
Social Class 106
Social Status 106

STATUS SETS 106 • ASCRIBED AND ACHIEVED
STATUSES 106 • STATUS SYMBOLS 107 • MASTER
STATUSES 107 • STATUS INCONSISTENCY 107

Contents vii

Roles 108
Groups 108

Social Institutions 109
Comparing Functionalist and Conflict Perspectives 109

THE FUNCTIONALIST PERSPECTIVE 109 • THE CONFLICT
PERSPECTIVE 111 • IN SUM 111

Changes in Social Structure 111
What Holds Society Together? 111

MECHANICAL AND ORGANIC SOLIDARITY 111 •
GEMEINSCHAFT AND GESELLSCHAFT 112 • HOW
RELEVANT ARE THESE CONCEPTS TODAY? 112 •
IN SUM 113

The Microsociological Perspective: Social Interaction
in Everyday Life 114

Symbolic Interaction 114
Stereotypes in Everyday Life 114
Personal Space 118
Eye Contact 119
Smiling 119
Body Language 119

APPLIED BODY LANGUAGE 119

Dramaturgy: The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life 119
Stages 120
Role Performance, Conflict, and Strain 120
Sign-Vehicles 121
Teamwork 123
Becoming the Roles We Play 123

APPLYING IMPRESSION MANAGEMENT 123

Ethnomethodology: Uncovering Background
Assumptions 124

IN SUM 125

The Social Construction of Reality 125
Gynecological Examinations 126

IN SUM 127

The Need for Both Macrosociology and Microsociology 127

Summary and Review 131
Thinking Critically about Chapter 4 132

5 Social Groups and Formal
Organizations 133

Groups within Society 135
Primary Groups 135

PRODUCING A MIRROR WITHIN 137

Secondary Groups 137
VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATIONS 137 • THE INNER
CIRCLE 137 • THE IRON LAW OF OLIGARCHY 138

In-Groups and Out-Groups 138
SHAPING PERCEPTION AND MORALITY 138

Reference Groups 139
EVALUATING OURSELVES 139 • EXPOSURE TO CONTRADICTORY
STANDARDS IN A SOCIALLY DIVERSE SOCIETY 140

Social Networks 140
THE SMALL WORLD PHENOMENON 142 • IS THE
SMALL WORLD PHENOMENON AN ACADEMIC
MYTH? 142 • BUILDING UNINTENTIONAL BARRIERS 142

Bureaucracies 143
The Characteristics of Bureaucracies 144
Goal Displacement and the Perpetuation

of Bureaucracies 146
Dysfunctions of Bureaucracies 147

RED TAPE: A RULE IS A RULE 147 • ALIENATION OF
WORKERS 147 • RESISTING ALIENATION 148

Working for the Corporation 148
Self-Fulfilling Stereotypes in the “Hidden”

Corporate Culture 148
SELF-FULFILLING STEREOTYPES AND PROMOTIONS 148

Diversity in the Workplace 149

Technology and the Maximum-Security Society 150

Group Dynamics 151
Effects of Group Size on Stability and Intimacy 151
Effects of Group Size on Attitudes and Behavior 152

LABORATORY FINDINGS AND THE REAL
WORLD 153

Leadership 155
WHO BECOMES A LEADER? 155 • TYPES OF
LEADERS 155 • LEADERSHIP STYLES 155 •
LEADERSHIP STYLES IN CHANGING SITUATIONS 156

The Power of Peer Pressure: The Asch Experiment 157
The Power of Authority: The Milgram Experiment 158
Global Consequences of Group Dynamics:

Groupthink 159
PREVENTING GROUPTHINK 160

Summary and Review 160
Thinking Critically about Chapter 5 161

6 Deviance and Social Control 162
What is Deviance? 164

A Neutral Term 164
STIGMA 164

Deviance Is Relative 164
How Norms Make Social Life Possible 166
Sanctions 166

IN SUM 166

Competing Explanations of Deviance: Sociobiology,
Psychology, and Sociology 167

Biosocial Explanations 167
Psychological Explanations 167
Sociological Explanations 168

The Symbolic Interactionist Perspective 168
Differential Association Theory 168

THE THEORY 168 • FAMILIES 168 • FRIENDS,
NEIGHBORHOODS, AND SUBCULTURES 168 •
DIFFERENTIAL ASSOCIATION IN THE CYBER AGE 169 •
PRISON OR FREEDOM? 169

Control Theory 170
THE THEORY 170

Labeling Theory 172
REJECTING LABELS: HOW PEOPLE NEUTRALIZE
DEVIANCE 172 • EMBRACING LABELS: THE EXAMPLE OF
OUTLAW BIKERS 173 • LABELS CAN BE POWERFUL 173 •
HOW DO LABELS WORK? 174 • IN SUM 174

The Functionalist Perspective 175
Can Deviance Really Be Functional for Society? 175
Strain Theory: How Mainstream Values Produce

Deviance 175
FOUR DEVIANT PATHS 176 • IN SUM 176

Illegitimate Opportunity Structures: Social
Class and Crime 176
STREET CRIME 176 • WHITE-COLLAR CRIME 178 •
GENDER AND CRIME 179 • IN SUM 180

The Conflict Perspective 180
Class, Crime, and the Criminal Justice System 180
The Criminal Justice System as an Instrument

of Oppression 180
IN SUM 181

Reactions to Deviance 181
Street Crime and Prisons 182
The Decline of Violent Crime 185
Recidivism 185
The Death Penalty and Bias 186

GEOGRAPHY 187 • SOCIAL CLASS 188 • GENDER 188 •
RACE–ETHNICITY 188

The Trouble with Official Statistics 190
The Medicalization of Deviance: Mental Illness 191

NEITHER MENTAL NOR ILLNESS? 191 • THE HOMELESS
MENTALLY ILL 192

The Need for a More Humane Approach 193

Summary and Review 193
Thinking Critically about Chapter 6 194

7 Global Stratification 195
Systems of Social Stratification 197

Slavery 198
CAUSES OF SLAVERY 198 • CONDITIONS OF
SLAVERY 199 • BONDED LABOR IN THE NEW
WORLD 199 • SLAVERY IN THE NEW WORLD 199 •
SLAVERY TODAY 200

Caste 200
INDIA’S RELIGIOUS CASTES 200 • SOUTH AFRICA 201 •
A U.S. RACIAL CASTE SYSTEM 202

Estate 203
WOMEN IN THE ESTATE SYSTEM 203

Class 204
Global Stratification and the Status of Females 204
The Global Superclass 204

What Determines Social Class? 205
Karl Marx: The Means of Production 205
Max Weber: Property, Power, and Prestige 206

IN SUM 206

Why Is Social Stratification Universal? 206
The Functionalist View: Motivating Qualified

People 207
DAVIS AND MOORE’S EXPLANATION 207 • TUMIN’S
CRITIQUE OF DAVIS AND MOORE 207 • IN SUM 208

The Conflict Perspective: Class Conflict
and Scarce Resources 208
MOSCA’S ARGUMENT 208 • MARX’S ARGUMENT 209 •
CURRENT APPLICATIONS OF CONFLICT THEORY 209

Lenski’s Synthesis 209
IN SUM 209

How Do Elites Maintain Stratification? 210
Soft Control versus Force 210

CONTROLLING PEOPLE’S IDEAS 210 • CONTROLLING
INFORMATION 211 • STIFLING CRITICISM 211 • BIG
BROTHER TECHNOLOGY 211 • IN SUM 211

Comparative Social Stratification 212
Social Stratification in Great Britain 212
Social Stratification in the Former Soviet Union 212

Global Stratification: Three Worlds 213
The Most Industrialized Nations 214
The Industrializing Nations 217
The Least Industrialized Nations 218
Modifying the Model 218

How Did the World’s Nations Become Stratified? 221
Colonialism 221
World System Theory 222
Culture of Poverty 223
Evaluating the Theories 223

Maintaining Global Stratification 224
Neocolonialism 224

RELEVANCE TODAY 224

Multinational Corporations 224
BUYING POLITICAL STABILITY 225 • UNANTICIPATED
CONSEQUENCES 225

Technology and Global Domination 225

Strains in the Global System: Uneasy Realignments 226

Summary and Review 226
Thinking Critically about Chapter 7 227

8 Social Class in the United States 228
What Is Social Class? 230

Property 230
DISTINGUISHING BETWEEN WEALTH AND INCOME 230 •
DISTRIBUTION OF PROPERTY 231 • DISTRIBUTION OF
INCOME 231

Power 234
THE DEMOCRATIC FACADE 234 • THE POWER ELITE 234

Prestige 235
OCCUPATIONS AND PRESTIGE 235 • DISPLAYING
PRESTIGE 235

Status Inconsistency 236

Sociological Models of Social Class 238
Updating Marx 238
Updating Weber 239

THE CAPITALIST CLASS 240 • THE UPPER-MIDDLE
CLASS 240 • THE LOWER-MIDDLE CLASS 241 •
THE WORKING CLASS 241 • THE WORKING POOR 241 •
THE UNDERCLASS 242

Consequences of Social Class 242
Physical Health 243
Mental Health 243
Family Life 244

CHOICE OF HUSBAND OR WIFE 244 • DIVORCE 244 •
CHILD REARING 244

viii Contents

Education 244
Religion 245
Politics 245
Crime and Criminal Justice 246

Social Mobility 246
Three Types of Social Mobility 246
Women in Studies of Social Mobility 248
The Pain of Social Mobility: Two Distinct Worlds 249

Poverty 251
Drawing the Poverty Line 251
Who Are the Poor? 253

BREAKING A MYTH 253 • THE GEOGRAPHY OF
POVERTY 253 • EDUCATION 254 • FAMILY STRUCTURE:
THE FEMINIZATION OF POVERTY 254 • RACE–
ETHNICITY 254 • AGE AND POVERTY 255

Children of Poverty 255

The Dynamics of Poverty versus the Culture of Poverty 257
Why Are People Poor? 257
Deferred Gratification 257
Where Is Horatio Alger? The Social Functions

of a Myth 259

Peering into the Future: Will We Live in a Three-Tier
Society? 260

Summary and Review 261
Thinking Critically about Chapter 8 262

9 Race and Ethnicity 263
Laying the Sociological Foundation 265

Race: Reality and Myth 265
THE REALITY OF HUMAN VARIETY 265 • THE MYTH OF
PURE RACES 265 • THE MYTH OF A FIXED NUMBER OF
RACES 266 • THE MYTH OF RACIAL SUPERIORITY 267 •
THE MYTH CONTINUES 268

Ethnic Groups 269
Minority Groups and Dominant Groups 269

NOT SIZE, BUT DOMINANCE AND DISCRIMINATION 269 •
EMERGENCE OF MINORITY GROUPS 269

Ethnic Work: Constructing Our Racial–Ethnic Identity 270

Prejudice and Discrimination 270

Learning Prejudice 270
DISTINGUISHING BETWEEN PREJUDICE AND
DISCRIMINATION 272 • LEARNING PREJUDICE FROM
ASSOCIATING WITH OTHERS 272 • THE FAR-REACHING
NATURE OF PREJUDICE 273 • INTERNALIZING DOMINANT
NORMS 275

Individual and Institutional Discrimination 275
HOME MORTGAGES 275 • HEALTH CARE 276

Theories of Prejudice 276

Psychological Perspectives 277
FRUSTRATION AND SCAPEGOATS 277 • THE
AUTHORITARIAN PERSONALITY 277

Sociological Perspectives 278
FUNCTIONALISM 278 • CONFLICT THEORY 278 •
SYMBOLIC INTERACTIONISM 279 • HOW LABELS
CREATE PREJUDICE 279 • LABELS AND SELF-FULFILLING
STEREOTYPES 279

Global Patterns of Intergroup Relations 281
Genocide 281

IN SUM 282

Population Transfer 282
Internal Colonialism 282
Segregation 282
Assimilation 283
Multiculturalism (Pluralism) 283

Racial–Ethnic Relations in the United States 283
European Americans 284

IN SUM 285

Latinos (Hispanics) 286
UMBRELLA TERM 286 • COUNTRIES OF ORIGIN 286 •
UNAUTHORIZED IMMIGRANTS 287 • RESIDENCE 288
• SPANISH 288 • ECONOMIC WELL-BEING 289 •
POLITICS 290

African Americans 290
RISING EXPECTATIONS AND CIVIL STRIFE 291 •
CONTINUED GAINS 291 • CURRENT LOSSES 292 •
RACE OR SOCIAL CLASS? A SOCIOLOGICAL DEBATE 292
• RACISM AS AN EVERYDAY BURDEN 293

Asian Americans 293
A BACKGROUND OF DISCRIMINATION 293 •
DIVERSITY 294 • REASONS FOR FINANCIAL
SUCCESS 294 • POLITICS 294

Native Americans 295
DIVERSITY OF GROUPS 295 • FROM TREATIES TO
GENOCIDE AND POPULATION TRANSFER 295 • THE
INVISIBLE MINORITY AND SELF-DETERMINATION 296 •
THE CASINOS 296 • DETERMINING IDENTITY AND GOALS 297

Looking toward the Future 297
The Immigration Controversy 297
The Affirmative Action Controversy 299

A BRIEF HISTORY 299 • SUPREME COURT
RULINGS 299 • THE BAMBOO CURTAIN 299 •
THE POTENTIAL SOLUTION 299

Less Racism 300
Toward a True Multicultural Society 300

Summary and Review 300
Thinking Critically about Chapter 9 302

10 Gender and Age 303
Inequalities of Gender 305
Issues of Sex and Gender 305

The Sociological Significance of Gender 305
Gender Differences in Behavior: Biology or Culture? 307
The Dominant Position in Sociology 307
Opening the Door to Biology 307

A MEDICAL ACCIDENT 307 • THE VIETNAM VETERANS
STUDY 308 • MORE RESEARCH ON HUMANS 308 •
IN SUM 309

Gender Inequality in Global Perspective 312
How Did Females Become a Minority Group? 312

GLOBAL VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN 313 • IN SUM 315

Gender Inequality in the United States 315
Fighting Back: The Rise of Feminism 315
Gender Inequality in Health Care 318

Contents ix

Gender Inequality in Education 319
THE PAST 319 • A FUNDAMENTAL CHANGE 320 •
GENDER TRACKING 321

Gender Inequality in the Workplace 322
The Pay Gap 322

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND 322 • GEOGRAPHICAL
FACTORS 322 • THE “TESTOSTERONE BONUS” 322 •
REASONS FOR THE GENDER PAY GAP 324 • THE CEO
POWER GAP—AND THE NEW FEMALE PREMIUM 325

Is the Glass Ceiling Cracking? 326
Sexual Harassment—and Worse 326

LABELS AND PERCEPTION 327 • NOT JUST A “MAN
THING” 327 • SEXUAL ORIENTATION 327

Gender and Violence 327
Violence against Women 327

FORCIBLE RAPE 327 • DATE (ACQUAINTANCE)
RAPE 328 • MURDER 328 • VIOLENCE IN THE
HOME 329 • FEMINISM AND GENDERED
VIOLENCE 329 • SOLUTIONS 329

The Changing Face of Politics 329

Glimpsing the Future—with Hope 330

Inequalities of Aging 330
Aging in Global Perspective 331

Extremes of Attitudes and Practices 331
IN SUM 331

Industrialization and the Graying of the Globe 332
THE LIFE SPAN 332

The Graying of America 333

The Symbolic Interactionist Perspective 335
Shifting Meanings of Growing Old 335
The Influence of the Mass Media 336

IN SUM 336

The Functionalist Perspective 337
Disengagement Theory 337

EVALUATION OF THE THEORY 337

Activity Theory 337
EVALUATION OF THE THEORY 338

Continuity Theory 338
EVALUATION OF THE THEORY 338 •

IN SUM: THE FUNCTIONALIST PERSECTIVE 338

The Conflict Perspective 339
Fighting for Resources: Social Security Legislation 339
“Old People Are Sucking Us Dry”: Intergenerational

Competition and Conflict 339
IN SUM: THE CONFICT PERSPECTIVE 340

Looking toward the Future 342
New Views: Creative Aging 342

Summary and Review 342
Thinking Critically about Chapter 10 344

11 Politics and the Economy 345
Politics: Establishing and Exercising Leadership 347
Power, Authority, and Violence 347

Authority and Legitimate Violence 347
Traditional Authority 348
Rational–Legal Authority 349

Charismatic Authority 349
THE THREAT POSED BY CHARISMATIC LEADERS 349

The Transfer of Authority 350

Types of Government 350
Monarchies: The Rise of the State 350
Democracies: Citizenship as a Revolutionary Idea 351
Dictatorships and Oligarchies: The Seizure of Power 353

The U.S. Political System 353
Political Parties and Elections 353
Polling and Predictions 354

SLICES FROM THE CENTER 355 • THIRD PARTIES 355

Voting Patterns 355
SOCIAL INTEGRATION 356 • ALIENATION 357 •
APATHY 357 • THE GENDER AND RACIAL–ETHNIC GAPS
IN VOTING 357

Lobbyists and Special-Interest Groups 358
LOBBYING BY SPECIAL-INTEREST GROUPS 358 •
THE MONEY 358

Who Rules the United States? 359
The Functionalist Perspective: Pluralism 359

IN SUM 359

The Conflict Perspective: The Power Elite 360
IN SUM 360

Which View Is Right? 360

War and Terrorism: Implementing Political
Objectives 361

Why Countries Go to War 361
THE FLESH AND BLOOD OF WAR 362

Terrorism 362

The Economy: Work in the Global Village 363
The Transformation of Economic Systems 364

Preindustrial Societies: The Birth of Inequality 364
Industrial Societies: The Birth of the Machine 365
Postindustrial Societies: The Birth of the

Information Age 365
Biotech Societies: The Merger of Biology and

Economics 366

World Economic Systems 367
Capitalism 367

WHAT CAPITALISM IS 367 • WHAT STATE
CAPITALISM IS 367

Socialism 368
WHAT SOCIALISM IS 368 • SOCIALISM IN
PRACTICE 369 • DEMOCRATIC SOCIALISM 369

Ideologies of Capitalism and Socialism 369
Criticisms of Capitalism and Socialism 369
The Convergence of Capitalism and Socialism 370

CHANGES IN SOCIALISM: CONVERGENCE 370 • CHANGES IN
CAPITALISM: CONVERGENCE 372

The Globalization of Capitalism 372
A New Global Structure and its Effects on
Workers 372
Stagnant Paychecks 375
The New Economic System and the Old Divisions

of Wealth 375
The Global Superclass 377

x Contents

What Lies Ahead? A New World Order? 377
Unity and Disunity 378
Inevitable Changes 378

Summary and Review 378
Thinking Critically about Chapter 11 380

12 Marriage and Family 381
Marriage and Family in Global Perspective 383

What Is a Family? 383
What Is Marriage? 384
Common Cultural Themes 384

MATE SELECTION 384 • DESCENT 386 •
INHERITANCE 386 • AUTHORITY 386

Marriage and Family in Theoretical Perspective 386
The Functionalist Perspective: Functions and

Dysfunctions 386
WHY THE FAMILY IS UNIVERSAL 387 • FUNCTIONS OF
THE INCEST TABOO 387 • ISOLATION AND EMOTIONAL
OVERLOAD 387

The Conflict Perspective: Struggles between
Husbands and Wives 387
INEVITABLE CONFLICT 387 • CHANGING POWER
RELATIONS 387

The Symbolic Interactionist Perspective: Gender,
Housework, and Child Care 388
CHANGES IN TRADITIONAL GENDER ORIENTATIONS 388 •
PAID WORK AND HOUSEWORK 388 • MORE CHILD
CARE 389 • TOTAL HOURS 389 • A GENDER DIVISION
OF LABOR 389

The Family Life Cycle 389
Love and Courtship in Global Perspective 389
Marriage 391

THE SOCIAL CHANNELS OF LOVE AND MARRIAGE 391

Childbirth 392
IDEAL FAMILY SIZE 392 • MARITAL SATISFACTION
AFTER CHILDBIRTH 394

Child Rearing 394
MARRIED COUPLES AND SINGLE MOTHERS 394 •
SINGLE FATHERS 394 • DAY CARE 394 • NANNIES 395
• SOCIAL CLASS 395 • HELICOPTER PARENTING 396 •
THE RIGHT WAY TO REAR CHILDREN 396

Family transitions 397
TRANSITIONAL ADULTHOOD 397 • WIDOWHOOD 397

Diversity in U.S. Families 398
African American Families 398
Latino Families 399
Asian American Families 400
Native American Families 400

IN SUM 400

One-Parent Families 401
Couples without Children 401
Blended Families 402
Gay and Lesbian Families 402

CHILDREN REARED BY GAY AND LESBIAN
COUPLES 403

Trends in U.S. Families 403
The Changing Timetable of Family Life: Marriage

and Childbirth 403

Cohabitation 404
COHABITATION AND MARRIAGE: THE ESSENTIAL
DIFFERENCE 404 • DOES COHABITATION MAKE
MARRIAGE STRONGER? 405

The “Sandwich Generation” and Elder Care 405

Divorce and Remarriage 405
Ways of Measuring Divorce 405
Divorce and Mixed Racial–Ethnic Marriages 407
Symbolic Interactionism and the Misuse of Statistics 407
Children of Divorce 408

NEGATIVE EFFECTS 408 • WHAT HELPS CHILDREN ADJUST
TO DIVORCE? 408 • PERPETUATING DIVORCE 409

Grandchildren of Divorce: Ripples to the Future 409
Fathers’ Contact with Children after Divorce 409
The Ex-Spouses 409
Remarriage: “I Do” Again and Again 410

Two Sides of Family Life 410
The Dark Side of Family Life: Battering, Child Abuse,

Marital Rape, and Incest 410
SPOUSE BATTERING 410 • CHILD ABUSE 410 •
MARITAL AND INTIMACY RAPE 411 • INCEST 411

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