Chat with us, powered by LiveChat Read and watch the lecture resources & materials below early in the week to help you respond to the | Max paper
  

Read and watch the lecture resources & materials below early in the week to help you respond to the discussion questions and to complete your assignment(s).

(Note: The citations below are provided for your research convenience. You should always cross-reference the current APA guide for correct styling of citations and references in your academic work.)

Read

  • Sizer, F., & Whitney, E. N. (2020).
    • For Discussion A: Chapter 11 , for discussion B chapter 12  both chapters on attachment

Watch

In the United States today, more than 92 million people suffer some form of disease of the heart and blood vessels, collectively known as cardiovascular disease (CVD). Chronic hypertension is one of the most prevalent forms of CVD, afflicting about 85 million U.S. adults, and its incidence has been rising steadily.

After studying Module 7: Lecture Materials & Resources, answer the following:

  1. List 5 risk factors placing people at risk of developing chronic diseases.
  2. List the top 3 leading causes of death in the United States.
  3. Describe in your own words how obesity increases the risk of cardiovascular disease.
  4. Explain how hypertension increases the risk of stroke.
  5. Share an example of a nutritional strategy to reduce cancer.

Discussion B

Review the PowerPoint “Food Safety” and watch the video “Food Safety in Seconds” located in Module 7: Lecture Materials & Resources, then discuss the following:

  • List 3 residues you can find in foods.
  • Describe the cause of foodborne illnesses.
  • List 3 examples of how to prevent Microbial Food Illnesses from foods.
  • List 3 signs and symptoms of Foodborne Illness.

Submission Instructions:

  • Your initial post should be at least 200 words each discussion, formatted, and cited in current APA style with support from at least 2 academic sources.

Chapter 11

Nutrition and Chronic Diseases

Sizer and Whitney, Nutrition: Concepts and Controversies, 15th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Learning Objectives

Discuss the relationship between risk factors and chronic diseases

Describe cardiovascular disease and identify its risk factors

Summarize the causes, consequences, and management of type 2 diabetes

Describe the relationships between diet and cancer

Outline strategies for including sufficient fruit and vegetables in a diet

Describe the emerging science of nutritional genomics

Sizer and Whitney, Nutrition: Concepts and Controversies, 15th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Introduction

Two types of diseases

Infectious and chronic

Nutrients and our body’s defenses

Natural immunity

Preventive measures provided by public health services

Vaccines and sanitation

Leading causes of death

Cardiovascular diseases

Diabetes

Cancer

Sizer and Whitney, Nutrition: Concepts and Controversies, 15th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Figure 11.1: The Ten Leading Causes of Death in the United Statesa

aRates are age adjusted to allow relative comparisons of mortality among groups and over time.

bAlcohol increases the risks for some cancers and strokes.

cMotor vehicle and other accidents are the leading cause of death among people aged 15–24, followed by homicide, suicide, cancer, and heart disease. Alcohol contributes to about half of all accident fatalities.

Source: Data from National Center for Health Statistics: K. D. Kochanek, and coauthors, Deaths: Final data for 2014, National Vital Statistics Reports 65, 4 (2016): 1–122.

Sizer and Whitney, Nutrition: Concepts and Controversies, 15th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Figure 11.1: The Ten Leading Causes of Death in the United States

Many deaths have multiple causes, but diet influences the development of several chronic diseases—notably, heart disease, some types of cancer, strokes, and diabetes.

4

The Concept of Risk Factors (Slide 1 of 2)

Risk factors are correlated with diseases

Traits, conditions, or lifestyle habits that increase people’s chances of developing diseases

Infectious diseases have a single cause

Exposure to a specific pathogen

Sizer and Whitney, Nutrition: Concepts and Controversies, 15th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

The Concept of Risk Factors (Slide 2 of 2)

The chronic diseases have many risk factors in common

Excessive alcohol intake

Lack of physical activity

Smoking or tobacco use

Diet

Sizer and Whitney, Nutrition: Concepts and Controversies, 15th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Table 11.1: Chronic Disease Risk Factorsa (Slide 1 of 3)

Risk Factors/Diseases Atherosclerosis Hypertension Diabetes, Type 2 Cancers Obesity
Advancing age (unmodifiable) x x x x N A
Family history, or heredity (unmodifiable) x x x x x
Atherosclerosisb N A x N A N A N A
Diabetesb x x N A N A N A
Hypertensionb x N A N A N A N A
Obesityb x x x x N A
High blood L D L and triglycerides; low H D L x N A N A N A N A

Sizer and Whitney, Nutrition: Concepts and Controversies, 15th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Table 11.1: Chronic Disease Risk Factorsa

Of all of these risk factors, the first two are unalterable: you cannot change your age or heredity. As for diseases as risk factors, if you already have one, you may or may not be able to slow or reverse it. The other risk factors have to do with your lifestyle choices and therefore are, to a great extent, under your control. Your choices can be powerful preventive measures against chronic diseases.

7

Table 11.1: Chronic Disease Risk Factorsa (Slide 2 of 3)

Risk Factors/Diseases Atherosclerosis Hypertension Diabetes, Type 2 Cancers Obesity
Excessive alcohol intake N A x N A x x
Physical inactivity x x x x x
Smoking/tobacco use x x N A x N A
Diet high in added sugars N A N A N A N A x
Atherogenic diet (high in saturated and/or trans fat and low in vegetables, fruit, and whole grainsc x x N A x x

Sizer and Whitney, Nutrition: Concepts and Controversies, 15th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

8

Table 11.1: Chronic Disease Risk Factorsa (Slide 3 of 3)

Risk Factors/Diseases Atherosclerosis Hypertension Diabetes, Type 2 Cancers Obesity
Diet high in salty/pickled foods N A x N A x N A
Diet low in vitamins and/or minerals x x N A x N A

aEnvironmental factors such as contamination are not included in this table.

bNote that atherosclerosis, diabetes, hypertension, and obesity are shown both as risk factors and as diseases in their own right.

cAn atherogenic diet produces high blood L D L and V L D L and low blood H D L. Such a diet is a C V D risk factor, and these blood-lipid test results, themselves, are also considered risk factors (see Table 11-3, p. 410).

Sizer and Whitney, Nutrition: Concepts and Controversies, 15th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

9

Figure 11.2: Interrelationships among Chronic Diseases

Sizer and Whitney, Nutrition: Concepts and Controversies, 15th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Figure 11.2: Interrelationships among Chronic Diseases

Many chronic diseases are themselves risk factors for other chronic diseases, and all of them are linked to obesity. The risk factors highlighted in blue define the metabolic syndrome (defined on p. 412).

10

Cardiovascular Diseases (C V D)

Disease of the heart and blood vessels

Leading cause of death in the United States

Examples: Hypertension, coronary heart disease, and stroke

Sizer and Whitney, Nutrition: Concepts and Controversies, 15th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Atherosclerosis (Slide 1 of 3)

Hardening of the arteries

No one is completely free of all signs of atherosclerosis

Question is how far it has advanced and what can be done to slow or reverse it

Hypertension and atherosclerosis are interrelated and accelerate each other

As most people age, atherosclerosis progresses steadily

Sizer and Whitney, Nutrition: Concepts and Controversies, 15th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Figure 11.3: The Formation of Plaques in Atherosclerosis

Sizer and Whitney, Nutrition: Concepts and Controversies, 15th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Figure 11.3: The Formation of Plaques in Atherosclerosis

Most people have well-developed plaques by the time they reach age 30.

13

Atherosclerosis (Slide 2 of 3)

The development of atherosclerosis involves:

Plaque development

Blood clot formation

Hypertension

Blood clots

Thrombus: Stationary clot

The tissue death caused is called thrombosis

Embolus: A clot broken loose

Embolism: Clot remains stuck in a narrow artery

SPL/Science Source

Sizer and Whitney, Nutrition: Concepts and Controversies, 15th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Figure 11.4: A blood clot

A blood clot in an artery, such as this fatal heart embolism, blocks the blood flow to tissues fed by that artery.

14

Atherosclerosis (Slide 3 of 3)

When an artery is blocked, it may swell and burst, causing an aneurysm

Hemorrhage: Blood leaks rapidly when a blood vessel bursts

Atherosclerosis raises blood pressure

High blood pressure accelerates atherosclerosis

Sizer and Whitney, Nutrition: Concepts and Controversies, 15th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Risk Factors for C V D (Slide 1 of 2)

Nonmodifiable risk factors

Increasing age

Male gender

Family history (heredity)

Modifiable risk factors

High blood L D L cholesterol

Low blood H D L cholesterol

High blood triglyceride (V L D L) levels

High blood pressure (hypertension)

Diabetes

© Iofoto/Shutterstock.com

Sizer and Whitney, Nutrition: Concepts and Controversies, 15th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Figure 11.6: Know Your Blood Pressure

The most effective single step you can take against hypertension is to learn your own blood pressure.

16

Risk Factors for C V D (Slide 2 of 2)

Obesity

Especially central obesity

Physical inactivity

Cigarette smoking and excessive alcohol consumption

High intake of sodium

An atherogenic diet

High in saturated fats and trans fats and low in vegetables, fruit, and whole grains

Sizer and Whitney, Nutrition: Concepts and Controversies, 15th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Metabolic Syndrome

Metabolic syndrome includes any three or more of the following:

High fasting blood glucose

Central obesity

Hypertension

Low blood high-density lipoprotein (H D L)

High blood triglycerides

Sizer and Whitney, Nutrition: Concepts and Controversies, 15th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Figure 11.5: Adult Standards for Blood Lipids

Category Total blood
cholesterol
(milligrams/deciliter)
L D L
cholesterol
(milligrams/deciliter)
H D L
cholesterol
(milligrams/deciliter)
Triglycerides,
fasting
(milligrams/deciliter)
Healthy <200 <100a ≥60 <150
Borderline 200–239 130–159b 59–40 150–199
Unhealthy ≥240 160–189c <40 200–499d

a100–129 milligrams/deciliter of L D L indicates a near optimal level.

bL D L cholesterol-lowering medication may be needed at 130 milligrams/deciliter, depending on other risks.

c>190 milligrams/deciliter of L D L indicates a very high risk.

d>500 milligrams/deciliter of triglycerides indicates a very high risk.

Sizer and Whitney, Nutrition: Concepts and Controversies, 15th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Figure 11.5: Adult Standards for Blood Lipids

19

Figure 11.8: The American Heart Association’s Heart Attack Risk Calculator

American Heart Association

Sizer and Whitney, Nutrition: Concepts and Controversies, 15th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Figure 11.8: The American Heart Association’s Heart Attack Risk Calculator

This online calculator can assess your risk of having a heart attack. For a meaningful assessment, you’ll need some information about your blood lipids, blood pressure, and fasting blood glucose. To access the calculator, visit the American Heart Association website: https://professional.heart.org/professional/GuidelinesStatements/ASCVDRiskCalculator/UCM_457698_ASCVD-Risk-Calculator.jsp

20

Think Fitness: Ways to Include Physical Activity in a Day (Slide 1 of 2)

Benefits of physical activity

Coach a sport

Garden

Hike, bike, or walk to nearby stores or to classes

Mow, trim, and rake by hand

Park a block from your destination and walk

Play a sport

Play with children

Take classes for credit in dancing, sports, conditioning, or swimming

Take the stairs, not the elevator

Sizer and Whitney, Nutrition: Concepts and Controversies, 15th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

When diets are rich in whole grains, vegetables, and fruit, life expectancies are long.

21

Think Fitness: Ways to Include Physical Activity in a Day (Slide 2 of 2)

Walk a dog

Walk every day

Wash your car with extra vigor, or bend and stretch to wash your toes in the bath

Work out at a fitness club

Work out with friends to help one another stay fit

Give away two labor-saving devices to someone who needs them

Lift small hand weights while talking on the phone, reading e-mail, or watching TV

Stretch often during the day

Sizer and Whitney, Nutrition: Concepts and Controversies, 15th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Recommendations for Reducing C V D Risk (Slide 1 of 3)

Estimate heart disease risk

Lifestyle changes

Increase physical activity

Lose weight if overweight

Implement dietary changes

Treat diseases you already have

Reduce exposure to tobacco smoke

Control alcohol intake

Learn your family history

Know your blood pressure

Sizer and Whitney, Nutrition: Concepts and Controversies, 15th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Recommendations for Reducing C V D Risk (Slide 2 of 3)

Recognize a heart attack

Pain or discomfort in the jaw, neck, or back

Feeling weak, light-headed, or faint

Chest pain or discomfort

Pain or discomfort in arms or shoulders

Shortness of breath

Recognize your salt/sodium intake

Increase potassium intake

Sizer and Whitney, Nutrition: Concepts and Controversies, 15th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Recommendations for Reducing C V D Risk (Slide 3 of 3)

Diet to reduce C V D risk

Reduce fat intake

Saturated and trans fats

Limit refined starches and added sugars

Eat fruits, vegetables, and whole grains

Eat foods rich in omega-3 fatty acids

Nutrient supplements, drugs, herbal remedies

Manage lifestyle changes

Sizer and Whitney, Nutrition: Concepts and Controversies, 15th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Table 11.5: How Much Does Changing the Eating Pattern Lower L D L Cholesterol?

Diet-Related Component Modification Possible L D L Reduction
Saturated fat <7% of calories 8–10%
Weight reduction (if overweight) Lose 10 pounds 5–8%
Soluble, viscous fiber 5–10 grams/day 3–5%

Sizer and Whitney, Nutrition: Concepts and Controversies, 15th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Table 11.5: How Much Does Changing the Eating Pattern Lower L D L Cholesterol?

For those who need to lower low-density lipoprotein (L D L) cholesterol, this table offers a perspective on the magnitude of results that may be possible.

26

Diabetes (Slide 1 of 2)

Well over one-third of U.S. adults have prediabetes

Exhibiting warning signs of diabetes to come

Two common forms of diabetes

Type 1

Type 2

Type 1 diabetes accounts for 5 to 10 percent of all cases

Sets in during childhood or adolescence but it can begin at any age, even late in life

Increasing in prevalence by about 3 percent each year

Autoimmune disorder

Sizer and Whitney, Nutrition: Concepts and Controversies, 15th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Diabetes (Slide 2 of 2)

Type 2 diabetes is responsible for 90 to 95 percent of cases in both adults and children

Predominant type closely linked with obesity

Been on the rise among children and adolescents

Insulin resistance: An inadequate response of the body’s cells to the hormone insulin

Sizer and Whitney, Nutrition: Concepts and Controversies, 15th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

How Does Type 2 Diabetes Develop?
(Slide 1 of 2)

Insulin resistance causes glucose and insulin to build up in the bloodstream

The blood glucose concentration rises

The overtaxed cells of the pancreas begin to fail and reduce their insulin output, while blood glucose soars farther out of control

Sizer and Whitney, Nutrition: Concepts and Controversies, 15th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

How Does Type 2 Diabetes Develop?
(Slide 2 of 2)

Symptoms

Intense hunger

Frequent urination

Intense thirst

Recognizing the symptoms of diabetes and seeking treatment are important steps for protecting health

Sizer and Whitney, Nutrition: Concepts and Controversies, 15th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Harms from Diabetes

Atherosclerosis tends to develop early, progress rapidly, and become severe in people with diabetes

Risk factors for type 2 diabetes are:

Advancing age

Family history (heredity)

Overweight and obesity

Impaired kidney, eye, and nerve function

Diminished blood circulation and nerve function

Tendency to develop slow-healing injuries and infections

Reduced blood flow to the kidneys damages them

Poor circulation to the eyes impairs vision and leads to blindness

Sizer and Whitney, Nutrition: Concepts and Controversies, 15th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Diabetes Prevention and Management
(Slide 1 of 2)

Know your family history

Diagnosis can be made using any of several tests

Fasting plasma glucose test

Nonfasting A 1 C test

Lose weight if overweight

Be physically active

Choose your diet with care

Control carbohydrate intake

Anna Kucherova/Shutterstock.com

Sizer and Whitney, Nutrition: Concepts and Controversies, 15th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Diabetes Prevention and Management
(Slide 2 of 2)

Reduce saturated fat intake to less than 10 percent of calories and limit trans fat as much as possible

Protein intake should be individualized

Alcohol intake should be moderate

Pay strict attention to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, particularly concerning intakes of nutrient-dense foods, sodium, saturated fats, and added sugars

Sizer and Whitney, Nutrition: Concepts and Controversies, 15th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Cancer

Second leading cause of disability and death in the United States

Prevention of cancer is preferable to potential for cure

Risk factors

Lifestyle factors

Environmental exposures

Diet

Dietary components

Overeating

Sizer and Whitney, Nutrition: Concepts and Controversies, 15th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

The Cancer Disease Process (Slide 1 of 2)

Cancer arises in the genetic material inside a person’s cells

The process is called carcinogenesis

Begins when a cell’s genetic material sustains damage from a carcinogen

Radiation, a free radical, or another cancer-causing chemical

Damage occurs everyday and is repaired by the cell

On failure to repair itself, the cell dies by cellular suicide, preventing its progeny to inherit faulty genes

Sizer and Whitney, Nutrition: Concepts and Controversies, 15th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

The Cancer Disease Process (Slide 2 of 2)

When a damaged cell doesn’t die, the immune system destroys such cells

When the immune system falters, a tumor is formed

Life-threatening cancer begins with an event called initiation

Promoters stimulate tumor growth

Sizer and Whitney, Nutrition: Concepts and Controversies, 15th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Figure 11.10: Risk-Benefit Relationships

Sizer and Whitney, Nutrition: Concepts and Controversies, 15th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Figure 11.10: Risk-Benefit Relationships

37

Figure 11.11: Cancer Development

Sizer and Whitney, Nutrition: Concepts and Controversies, 15th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Figure 11.11: Cancer Development

38

Cancer Risk Factors (Slide 1 of 2)

Advancing age

Family history (heredity)

Chronic inflammation

Diet

Weakened immunity

Infections

Obesity and estrogen

Alcohol with smoking

Fats and fatty acids

Sizer and Whitney, Nutrition: Concepts and Controversies, 15th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Many consumers appreciate the availability of bacon without added nitrites or nitrates.

39

Cancer Risk Factors (Slide 2 of 2)

Carcinogens in red and processed meats

Cooking methods

Iron

Fried foods

Environmental factors

Overexposure to the sun and exposure to radiation

Sizer and Whitney, Nutrition: Concepts and Controversies, 15th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Cancer Prevention (Slide 1 of 2)

A key to evaluating the safety of foods is the frequency of consumption

Balanced and varied diet must be followed

Evidence continues to accumulate in favor of fiber-rich foods

Whole foods and phytochemicals reduce oxidative damage to cell structures

Some phytochemicals are thought to act as anticarcinogens

Shulevskyy Volodymyr/Shutterstock.com

Lisa S./Shutterstock.com

Sizer and Whitney, Nutrition: Concepts and Controversies, 15th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Figure 11.12: Examples of Cruciferous Vegetables

Cruciferous vegetables belong to the cabbage family: arugula, bok choy, broccoli, broccoli sprouts, brussels sprouts, cabbages (all sorts), cauliflower, greens (collard, mustard, turnip), kale, kohlrabi, rutabaga, and turnip root.

Regular intake of whole foods like these, not individual chemicals, lowers people’s cancer risks.

41

Cancer Prevention (Slide 2 of 2)

Supplements of vitamins and nutrients have not been proved to prevent cancer

Use alcohol sparingly or abstain from use

Achieve and maintain a healthy body weight throughout life

Engage in regular physical activity

Whenever people’s food intakes are limited, the onset of cancer is delayed

Known as the caloric effect

Sizer and Whitney, Nutrition: Concepts and Controversies, 15th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Steps to Minimize Carcinogen Formation during Cooking

Marinate meats before cooking, and roast or bake them in the oven

When grilling, line the grill with foil, or wrap the food in foil

Take care not to burn foods

Limit intakes of crispy, browned French fries and chips and other well-browned foods

Sizer and Whitney, Nutrition: Concepts and Controversies, 15th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Table 11.9: Recommendations and Strategies for Reducing Cancer Risk (Slide 1 of 3)

Recommendations Strategies
Body fatness. Achieve and maintain a healthy body weight throughout life Follow the Healthy U.S.-Style Eating Pattern for your appropriate energy level
Engage in regular physical activity
Limit consumption of energy-dense foods and avoid beverages with added sugars
Consume “fast foods” sparingly, if at all
Physical activity. Adopt a physically active lifestyle Engage in at least 150 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity or 75 minutes of vigorous-intensity physical activity or an equivalent combination throughout the week
Limit sedentary behaviors such as sitting, lying down, watching television, and other forms of screen-based recreation

Sizer and Whitney, Nutrition: Concepts and Controversies, 15th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Table 11.9: Recommendations and Strategies for Reducing Cancer Risk

44

Table 11.9: Recommendations and Strategies for Reducing Cancer Risk (Slide 2 of 3)

Recommendations Strategies
Plant-based foods. Consume a healthy diet with an emphasis on whole foods from plants Eat at least the daily amounts of vegetables and fruit recommended by the U S D A Eating Patterns
Choose whole grains instead of refined grain products
Limit intake of red meat and avoid processed meats
Limit refined starchy foods
Alcoholic drinks. If you drink alcoholic beverages, limit consumption Drink no more than two drinks a day for men and one drink a day for women

Sizer and Whitney, Nutrition: Concepts and Controversies, 15th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

45

Table 11.9: Recommendations and Strategies for Reducing Cancer Risk (Slide 3 of 3)

Recommendations Strategies
Preservation, processing, preparation.
Limit consumption of salt-cured foods and processed meats
Avoid salt-preserved, salted, or salty foods
Limit consumption of processed foods with added salt to ensure an intake of less than 6 grams of salt (2.4 grams of sodium) a day
Avoid processed meats
Dietary supplements. Aim to meet nutritional needs through diet Dietary supplements are not recommended for cancer prevention

Sources: L. H. Kushi and coauthors, American Cancer Society guidelines on nutrition and physical activity for cancer prevention, CA: Cancer Journal for Clinicians 62 (2012): 30–67; World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research, Food, Nutrition, Physical Activity and the Prevention of Cancer: A Global Perspective (Washington, D.C.: AICR, 2007), pp. 373–390.

Sizer and Whitney, Nutrition: Concepts and Controversies, 15th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Deciding about C A M (Slide 1 of 2)

Stands for complementary and alternative medicine

A group of diverse medical and health care systems, practices, and products that are not considered to be a part of conventional medicine

C A M best bets are:

Herbal medicines

Acupuncture

Sizer and Whitney, Nutrition: Concepts and Controversies, 15th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Deciding about C A M (Slide 2 of 2)

A C A M worst case

Use of the drug laetrile, a C A M treatment for cancer, which was a hazardous choice because of its high cyanide content

A curious case of anosmia, a loss of the sense of smell, occurred due to zinc gel being squirted into the nose

C A M products are not tested for safety

Other issues with C A M

Mislabeled herbs

Lack of knowledge

Sizer and Whitney, Nutrition: Concepts and Controversies, 15th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

The D A S H Diet: Preventive Medicine

People who consume the adequate, balanced, calorie-controlled, moderate, and varied diet recommended by the Dietary Guidelines for Americans enjoy a longer, healthier life than those who do not

To lower saturated fat intakes, the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (D A S H) diet emphasizes …

Chapter 12

Food Safety and Food Technology

Sizer and Whitney, Nutrition: Concepts and Controversies, 15th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

1

Learning Objectives (Slide 1 of 2)

Describe microbial foodborne illnesses and core practices that can prevent them

Identify the categories of foods that most often cause foodborne illnesses

Outline technological advances aimed at reducing microbial food contamination

Describe natural toxins, pesticide residues, and contaminants in food

Sizer and Whitney, Nutrition: Concepts and Controversies, 15th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

2

Learning Objectives (Slide 2 of 2)

Compare potential advantages and drawbacks of organic and conventional foods

Describe the uses and safety characteristics of some common food additives

Describe applications of food-safety practices in various settings

Summarize the advantages and disadvantages of producing food through genetic engineering

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3

Introduction (Slide 1 of 2)

Food and Drug Administration (or F D A) areas of concern

Microbial foodborne illness

Foodborne illness: Illness transmitted to human beings through food or water

Natural toxins in foods

Residues in food

Environmental and other contaminants

Pesticide residues

Animal drugs

Nutrients in foods

Sizer and Whitney, Nutrition: Concepts and Controversies, 15th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

With the privilege of abundance comes the responsibility to choose and handle foods wisely.

4

Introduction (Slide 2 of 2)

Intentional approved food additives

Genetically engineered foods

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5

Table 12.1: Food Regulatory Agencies
(Slide 1 of 2)

Each agency oversees programs and systems aimed at maintaining and improving the safety of the food supply
C D C (or Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) a branch of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services that is responsible for, among other things, identifying, monitoring, and reporting on foodborne illnesses and outbreaks (www.cdc.gov).
E P A (or Environmental Protection Agency) a federal agency that is responsible for, among other things, regulating pesticides and establishing water quality standards (www.epa.gov).
F A O (or Food and Agriculture Organization) an international agency (part of the United Nations) that has adopted standards to regulate pesticide use, among other responsibilities (www.fao.org).

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Table 12.1: Food Regulatory Agencies

6

Table 12.1: Food Regulatory Agencies
(Slide 2 of 2)

Each agency oversees programs and systems aimed at maintaining and improving the safety of the food supply
F D A (Food and Drug Administration) the federal agency responsible for ensuring the safety and wholesomeness of all dietary supplements and foods processed and sold in interstate and international commerce except for some aspects of meat, poultry, and eggs (which are under the jurisdiction of the U S D A); setting standards for food composition and product labeling; and issuing recalls when problems arise (www.fda.gov).
U S D A (U.S. Department of Agriculture) the federal agency responsible for enforcing standards for the wholesomeness and quality of meat, poultry, and eggs produced in the United States; conducting nutrition research; and educating the public about nutrition (www.usda.gov).
W H O (World Health Organization) an international agency concerned with promoting
health and eradicating disease (www.who.int).

Sizer and Whitney, Nutrition: Concepts and Controversies, 15th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Table 12.1: Food Regulatory Agencies

7

Microbes and Food Safety

Microorganisms can cause foodborne illness either by infection or by intoxication

Foodborne illnesses are caused by microbes and pathogens

Microbes: Minute organisms too small to observe without a microscope

Pathogens: Bacteria, viruses, fungi, and other microbes capable of causing illness

Can be life-threatening for certain people

Malnourished, has a compromised immune system; lives in an institution; has liver or stomach illnesses; or is pregnant, very old, or very young

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8

How Do Microbes in Food Cause Illness in the Body? (Slide 1 of 2)

Infection agents

Salmonella or hepatitis

Intoxication

Enterotoxins: Poisons that act on mucous membranes

Neurotoxins: Poisons that act on the cells of the nervous system

Types of toxins

Most infamous types are Clostridium botulinum

Botulism which is an often fatal foodborne illness that is caused by the botulinum toxin quickly paralyzes muscles

Grows in anaerobic conditions

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9

How Do Microbes in Food Cause Illness in the Body? (Slide 2 of 2)

Staphylococcus aureus bacterium

The most common cause of food intoxication

Shiga toxin, a protein from the E. coli bacterium

Causes the S T E C disease

Results in hemolytic-uremic syndrome

Sizer and Whitney, Nutrition: Concepts and Controversies, 15th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

To prevent botulism from homemade flavored oils, wash and dry fresh herbs before use, and keep the oil refrigerated. Discard it after a week to 10 days.

10

Table 12.2: Causes, Symptoms, and Prevention of Microbial Foodborne Illnesses – Foodborne Infections (Slide 1 of 3)

Organism Name Most Frequent Food Sources Onset and General Symptoms Prevention Methodsa
Campylobacter
(KAM-pee-loh-BAK-ter)
bacterium
Raw and undercooked poultry, unpasteurized milk, contaminated
water
Onset: 2 to 5 days; Diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal cramps,
fever; sometimes bloody stools; lasts 2 to 10 days.
Cook foods thoroughly; use pasteurized milk; use sanitary food-handling methods.
Clostridium
(claw-STRID-ee-um)
perfringens
(per-FRINGE-enz) bacterium
Meats and meat products held at
between 120°F and 130°F
Onset: 8 to 16 hours; Abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea; lasts 1 to 2 days. Use sanitary food-handling methods; use pasteurized milk; cook foods thoroughly; refrigerate foods promptly and properly.

Sizer and Whitney, Nutrition: Concepts and Controversies, 15th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Table 12.2: Causes, Symptoms, and Prevention of Microbial Foodborne Illnesses

11

Table 12.2: Causes, Symptoms, and Prevention of Microbial Foodborne Illnesses – Foodborne Infections (Slide 2 of 3)

Organism Name Most Frequent Food Sources Onset and General Symptoms Prevention Methodsa
Escherichia coli; E. coli
(esh-eh-REEK-ee-uh-
KOH-lye) bacterium
(including Shiga toxin–
producing strains)a
Undercooked ground beef, unpasteurized
milk and juices, raw fruit and vegetables, contaminated water, and person-to-person contact
Onset: 1 to 8 days Severe bloody diarrhea, abdominal cramps, vomiting; lasts 5 to 10 days. Cook ground beef thoroughly; use pasteurized milk; use sanitary food-handling methods; use treated, boiled, or bottled water.
Norovirus Person-to-person contact; raw foods, salads, sandwiches Onset: 1 to 2 days Vomiting; lasts 1 to 2 days. Use sanitary food-handling methods.

Sizer and Whitney, Nutrition: Concepts and Controversies, 15th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Table 12.2: Causes, Symptoms, and Prevention of Microbial Foodborne Illnesses

12

Table 12.2: Causes, Symptoms, and Prevention of Microbial Foodborne Illnesses – Foodborne Infections (Slide 3 of 3)

Organism Name Most Frequent Food Sources Onset and General Symptoms Prevention Methodsa
Salmonella
(sal-moh-NEL-ah) bacteria (>2,300 types)
Raw or undercooked eggs, meats, poultry, raw milk and other dairy products, shrimp, frog legs, yeast, coconut, pasta, and chocolate Onset: 1 to 3 days Fever, vomiting, abdominal cramps, diarrhea; lasts 4 to 7 days; can be fatal. Use sanitary food-handling methods; use pasteurized milk; cook foods thoroughly; refrigerate foods promptly and properly.
Toxoplasma
(TOK-so-PLAZ-ma)
gondii parasite
Raw or undercooked meat; contaminated water; raw goat’s
milk; ingestion after contact with
infected cat feces
Onset: 7 to 21 days Swollen
glands, fever, headache, muscle
pain, stiff neck.
Use sanitary food-handling methods; cook foods thoroughly.

Sizer and Whitney, Nutrition: Concepts and Controversies, 15th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Table 12.2: Causes, Symptoms, and Prevention of Microbial Foodborne Illnesses

13

Table 12.2: Causes, Symptoms, and Prevention of Microbial Foodborne Illnesses – Foodborne Intoxications (Slide 1 of 2)

Organism Name Most Frequent Food Sources Onset and General Symptoms Prevention Methodsa
Clostridium
(claw-STRID-ee-um)
botulinum (bot-chew-
LINE-um) bacterium
produces botulin toxin,
responsible for causing
botulism
Anaerobic environment of low acidity (canned corn, peppers, green beans, soups, beets, asparagus, mushrooms, ripe olives, spinach, tuna, chicken, chicken liver, liver pâté, luncheon meats, ham, sausage, stuffed eggplant, lobster, and smoked and salted fish) Onset: 4 to 36 hours Nervous
System symptoms, including double vision, inability to swallow, speech difficulty, and progressive
paralysis of the respiratory system;
often fatal; leaves prolonged symptoms in survivors.
Use proper canning methods for
low-acid foods; refrigerate homemade
garlic and herb oils; avoid commercially prepared foods
with leaky seals or with bent, bulging, or broken cans.
Do not feed honey to infants.

Sizer and Whitney, Nutrition: Concepts and Controversies, 15th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Table 12.2: Causes, Symptoms, and Prevention of Microbial Foodborne Illnesses

14

Table 12.2: Causes, Symptoms, and Prevention of Microbial Foodborne Illnesses – Foodborne Intoxications (Slide 2 of 2)

Organism Name Most Frequent Food Sources Onset and General Symptoms Prevention Methodsa
Staphylococcus (STAFil-
oh-KOK-us) aureus
bacterium produces
staphylococcal toxin
Toxin produced in improperly refrigerated meats; egg, tuna, potato, and macaroni salads; cream-filled pastries Onset: 1 to 6 hours Diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, fever; lasts 1 to 2 days. Use sanitary food-handling methods; cook food thoroughly; refrigerate foods promptly and properly.

Note: Travelers’ diarrhea is most commonly caused by E. coli, Campylobacter jejuni, Shigella, and Salmonella.

aE. Coli O157, O145, and other Shiga toxin-producing bacteria cause toxin-mediated infections—they release toxins as their colonies grow in the body.

Sizer and Whitney, Nutrition: Concepts and Controversies, 15th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Table 12.2: Causes, Symptoms, and Prevention of Microbial Foodborne Illnesses

15

Dangerous Symptoms of Foodborne Illness (Slide 1 of 2)

Some bouts of foodborne illness may be mild and clear up on their own, but others pose serious threats. Any of the following symptoms demand medical attention

Get medical help for these symptoms

Bloody stools

Dehydration

Diarrhea of more than 3 days’ duration

Fever of longer than 24 hours’ duration

Headache with muscle stiffness and fever

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16

Dangerous Symptoms of Foodborne Illness (Slide 2 of 2)

Numbness, muscle weakness, tingling sensations in the skin

Rapid heart rate, fainting, dizziness

Severe intestinal cramps

Warning signs of botulism—a medical emergency

Difficulty breathing

Difficulty swallowing

Double vision

Weak muscles

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17

Food Safety from Farm to Plate (Slide 1 of 3)

Safe food supply depends on precautions taken:

On the farm or at sea

In processing plants

During transportation

At supermarkets, institutions, and restaurants

During final handling by purchasers

Safeguard to prevent outbreaks

Pasteurization: Treatment of milk, juices, or eggs with heat sufficient to kill certain pathogenic microbes. It is not a sterilization process. The products retain bacteria that cause spoilage

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18

Food Safety from Farm to Plate (Slide 2 of 3)

The 2016 F D A Food Safety Modernization Act (or F S M A)

Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (or H A C C P) plan

All food producers have this plan

Identification of critical control points

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19

Food Safety from Farm to Plate (Slide 3 of 3)

Grocery safety

Batch numbering

Freshness dates

Seals, wrappers, safety “buttons”

When shopping, select frozen or refrigerated foods and fresh meats last

Eric Erbe/Christopher Pooley/United States

Department of Agriculture

Sizer and Whitney, Nutrition: Concepts and Controversies, 15th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Figure 12.2: Bacterial Growth.

Bacterial colonies grow quickly when a single bacterium encounters favorable conditions. For example, each oblong-shaped E. coli in this stack can reproduce every 20 minutes or so, doubling the colony size in a process that continues until conditions change (E. coli magnified 7,000 times).

20

Figure 12.1: From Farm to Plate: Make Food Safe

Sizer and Whitney, Nutrition: Concepts and Controversies, 15th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Figure 12.1: From Farm to Plate: Make Food Safe

21

Table 12.4: Are Your Foods Expiring? (Slide 1 of 2)

Although dates on food packages do not reflect food safety, they can alert both sellers and consumers to a product’s degree of freshness

Sell by: Specifies the shelf life of the food. After this date, the food may still be safe for consumption if it has been handled and stored properly. Also called pull date

Best if used by: Specifies the last date the food will be of the highest quality. After this date, quality is expected to diminish, although the food may still be safe for consumption if it has been handled and stored properly. Also called freshness date or quality assurance date

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22

Table 12.4: Are Your Foods Expiring? (Slide 2 of 2)

Expiration date: The last day the food should be consumed. All foods except eggs should be discarded after this date. For eggs, the expiration date refers to the last day the eggs may be sold as “fresh eggs.” For safety, purchase eggs before the expiration date, keep them in their original carton in the refrigerator, and use them within 30 daysa

Pack date: The day the food was packaged or processed. When used on packages of fresh meats, pack dates can provide a general guide to freshness

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23

Safe Food Practices for Individuals (Slide 1 of 2)

Food provides ideal conditions for bacteria

Nutrients

Moisture

Warmth, 40°F to 140°F

Four core practices to defeat bacteria

Keep hands clean

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Figure 12.3: Fight Bac!

Four ways to keep food safe. The Fight Bac! website is at www.fightbac.org.

24

Safe Food Practices for Individuals (Slide 2 of 2)

Keeping surfaces clean

Keep separate

Avoid cross-contamination

Cook

Chill

Thaw frozen meats or poultry in the refrigerator

Source: Photos courtesy of A. Estes Reynolds, George A. Schuler, James A. Christian, and William C. Hurst

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Figure 12.4: Why Wash Your Hands?

The photo on the left shows a person’s clean-looking but unwashed hand touching a sterile, moist, nutrient-rich gel in a laboratory dish. After 24 hours in a warm incubator, the large colonies provide visible evidence of the microorganisms that were transferred from the hand to the gel.

25

Figure 12.6: Food-Safety Temperatures (Fahrenheit) and Household Thermometers

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Figure 12.6: Food-Safety Temperatures (Fahrenheit) and Household Thermometers

Cooking and cooling foods to proper temperatures reduce microbial threats. Different thermometers do different jobs. To choose the right one, pay attention to its temperature range: some have high temperature ranges intended to test the doneness of meats and other hot foods. Others have lower ranges for testing temperatures of refrigerators and freezers.

26

Table 12.6: Safe Food Storage Times:
Refrigerator (≤40F)

For products with longer shelf lives, rotate them like restaurants do. “First-In-First-Out” means to check dates and use up older products first

1 to 2 Days 1 to 2 Weeks
Raw ground meats, breakfast or other raw sausages; raw fish or poultry; gravies Yogurt; carrots, celery, lettuce
3 to 5 Days 2 to 4 Weeks
Raw steaks, roasts, or chops; cooked meats, poultry, vegetables, and mixed dishes; lunchmeats (packages opened); mayonnaise salads (chicken, egg, pasta, tuna); fresh vegetables (spinach, green beans, tomatoes) Fresh eggs (in shells); lunchmeats, bacon, or hot dogs (packages unopened); dry sausages (pepperoni, hard salami); most aged and processed cheeses (Swiss, brick)
1 Week 2 Months
Hard-cooked eggs, bacon, or hot dogs (opened packages); smoked sausages or seafood; milk, cottage cheese Mayonnaise (opened jar); most dry cheeses (Parmesan, Romano)

aFor additional information, see www.fda.gov/downloads/Food/ResourcesForYou/HealthEducators/UCM109315.pdf.

Sizer and Whitney, Nutrition: Concepts and Controversies, 15th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Table 12.6: Safe Food Storage Times: Refrigerator (≤40F)

aFor additional information, see www.fda.gov/downloads/Food/ResourcesForYou/HealthEducators/UCM109315.pdf.

27

Which Foods Are Most Likely to
Cause Illness? (Slide 1 of 3)

Foods that are high in moisture and nutrients

Foods that are chopped or ground

Protein foods

Ground meats, stuffed poultry, eggs, seafood, raw milk products

Microbial dangers in sushi can’t always be detected

Raw meat can contain a prion that causes bovine spongiform encephalopathy (or B S E)

Prion: A disease agent consisting of an unusually folded protein that disrupts normal cell functioning

BSE: An often fatal illness of the nerves and brain

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28

Figure 12.7: Food Safety Labels for Meat and Poultry

Safe handling label for raw meat and poultry

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Figure 12.7: Food Safety Labels for Meat and Poultry.

Following food safety instructions for meat and poultry minimizes bacterial growth and cross-contamination.

29

Table 12.7: Raw Seafood Myths and Truths

Myth Truth
If a raw seafood was consumed in the past with no ill effect, it is safe to do so today. Each harvest bears separate risks, and seafood is increasingly contaminated.
Drinking alcoholic beverages with raw seafood will “kill the germs.” Alcoholic beverages cannot make contaminated raw seafood safe.
Putting hot sauce on raw oysters and other raw seafood will “kill the germs.” Hot sauce exerts no effect on microbes in seafood.

Sizer and Whitney, Nutrition: Concepts and Controversies, 15th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Table 12.7: Raw Seafood Myths and Truths

Figure 12.8: Hamburger Safety

A safe hamburger is cooked well done (internal temperature of 160°F) and has juices that run clear. Place it on a clean plate when it’s done.

30

Which Foods Are Most Likely to Cause Illness? (Slide 2 of 3)

Raw produce

Foods that grow close to the ground

Food must be scrubbed or washed to remove biofilm

Biofilm: A layer of microbes mixed with a sticky, protective coating of proteins and carbohydrates exuded by certain bacteria

Produce Safety Rule: F S M A law that regulates growing and working conditions on farms

Unpasteurized juices

Sprouts

Sizer and Whitney, Nutrition: Concepts and Controversies, 15th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Figure 12.9: Warning Label for Unpasteurized Juice

Unpasteurized or untreated juice must bear the following warning on its label:

WARNING: This product has not been pasteurized and therefore may contain harmful bacteria that can cause serious illness in children, the elderly, and persons with weakened immune systems.

31

Which Foods Are Most Likely to Cause Illness? (Slide 3 of 3)

Other foods

Imported foods such as fresh produce present a greater risk to food safety

The new F S M A rules require verification that food has been handled in keeping with the U.S. food and safety standards

Include a country of origin label

Honey contains dormant spores of Clostridium botulinum

Picnics and lunch bags

Choose foods that are safe without refrigeration, use well-aged cheeses, ensure that food can be kept chilled if required

Take-out foods and leftovers

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32

Advances in Microbial Food Safety

Irradiation

Exposes food to controlled doses of gamma rays from cobalt 60

Does not sterilize most foods

Protects consumers

Controls foodborne illnesses

Preserves food

Controls insects on fruits

Delays sprouting and ripening

Sterilizes some products

Consumers respond negatively

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Figure 12.11: Radura symbol.

This “radura” logo is the international symbol for foods treated with irradiation.

33

Other Technologies

Microbial testing

Automated systems have improved testing accuracy

Modified atmosphere packaging (or M A P)

Reduces oxygen

High-pressure processing (or H P P) and ultrasound

H P P compresses water to kill many kinds of pathogens

High-powered ultrasound holds promise as a sanitizer for organic salad greens

Antimicrobial wraps and films

Protects food and lends a pleasing herbal flavor to foods

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34

Toxins, Residues, and Contaminants
in Foods (Slide 1 of 3)

Many plants have natural poisons to fend off diseases, insects, and other predators

Potatoes contain solanine

Pesticides: Chemicals used to control insects, diseases, weeds, fungi, and other pests on crops and around animals

Protect crops from insect damage and increase potential yield

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35

Toxins, Residues, and Contaminants
in Foods (Slide 2 of 3)

Accumulate in the food chain and kill valuable pollinators and pests’ natural predators and pollute the water, soil, and air

Minute quantities of pesticide residues can survive processing

Infants and children are vulnerable

Immature human detoxifying system

Lower pesticide tolerance

Proportionally greater food consumption

E P A sets a reference dose

U S D A and F D A test food samples for compliance

Some insects become resistant to pesticides

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36

Toxins, Residues, and Contaminants
in Foods (Slide 3 of 3)

Organic gardens use natural pesticides

Organic gardens: Gardens grown with techniques of sustainable agriculture, such as using fertilizers made from composts and introducing predatory insects to control pests, in ways that have minimal impact on soil, water, and air quality

Consuming organic foods reduces exposure to pesticides

Organic foods: Produced without synthetic pesticides, herbicides, fertilizers, drugs, and preservatives and without genetic engineering or irradiation

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37

Table 12.9: A Sampling of Natural Toxins

Foods Toxic content
Herbs Belladonna and hemlock are infamous poisonous herbs, but sassafras is also toxic; it contains the carcinogen and liver toxin safrole, which is so potent that it is banned from use in foods and beverages.
Cabbage family Raw cabbage, turnips, mustard greens, and radishes all contain small quantities of harmful goitrogens, compounds that can interfere with thyroid hormone production and when eaten in excess, enlarge the thyroid gland.
Foods with cyanogens Cyanogens, precursors to the deadly poison cyanide, are found in bitter varieties of cassava, a root vegetable staple for many people. Most cassava is low in cyanogens.
Apricot and cherry pits present the cyanogen amygdalin, a fake cancer cure often passed off as a vitamin. aThis poison kills cancer cells but only at doses that can kill the person, too. Other fruit pits contain lower concentrations.
Seafood red tide toxin Seafood may occasionally become …
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