Chat with us, powered by LiveChat Assignment Overview: So far you have created a SWOT Analysis for sporting events, and have investiga | Max paper

Assignment Overview:

So far you have created a SWOT Analysis for sporting events, and have investigated the staffing needs for major sporting events.  Now it’s time to create a request for proposal, consider the budgetary requirements needed for a sporting event of your choosing. 

Sport event owners will specify bid procedures and timetables for the bid to host the event. Much of this is outlined in a request for proposal (RFP). The RFP outlines the event’s minimum requirements. The most often cited requirements for sporting events concern the venue. Organizations may have very specific requirements regarding the venue or venues to be used such as facility specifications, playing surface, spectator capacity, locker rooms, and amenities. Minimum requirements may also relate to dates, event staff and officials, and any fees or revenue guarantees.

Utilizing the RFP samples in the course materials for guidance, please create an RFP for a fictitious sporting event of your choice. 

You should include the following minimum requirements in your RFP:

  • About the Organization
  • Mission Event
  • Description
  • Economic/Community Benefits
  • Event Requirements
  • Facility Specifications
  • Host Community Requirements
  • Timeline for the Bid Process
  • Submission Deadline
  • Award Date

Additionally, include a proposed budget for the event. In addition to the budget information in the textbook, there are additional supplemental materials in the course materials All of these items may not be necessary in the budget for your event, so be sure to only include items pertinent to your event.

The budget should include, but not be limited to, the following:

  • Types of revenues and amounts
  • Types of expenses and amounts
  • Any other elements common to the type of event chosen.

Students are encouraged to research budgets before beginning the project.  Rather than re-inventing the wheel, students should research in person or through the Internet search for budgets from events of a similar size and capacity.

Paper Details: Through research, students should familiarize themselves with as many financial responsibilities of the organization as they can, including sources of revenue, typical expenses, employment practices and benefits packages, daily operating practices, financial planning practices, and more.

Paper should be two-to-three pages double-spaced in length utilizing proper APA style, with a cover page and reference page listing all sources.


Sport EvEntS

t. Christopher greenwell, phD
University of Louisville

Leigh ann Danzey-Bussell, phD
University of West Georgia

David J. Shonk, phD
James Madison University

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Greenwell, T. Christopher, 1967-
Managing sport events / T. Christopher Greenwell, Leigh Ann Danzey-Bussell, David J. Shonk.
p. cm.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
1. Sports–Management. 2. Sports administration. 3. Special events–Management. I. Danzey-Bussell, Leigh
Ann, 1965- II. Shonk, David J., 1969- III. Title.
GV713.G65 2014

ISBN-10: 0-7360-9611-6 (print)
ISBN-13: 978-0-7360-9611-9 (print)

Copyright © 2014 by T. Christopher Greenwell, Leigh Ann Danzey-Bussell, and David J. Shonk

All rights reserved. Except for use in a review, the reproduction or utilization of this work in any form or by any
electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including xerography, photocopying,
and recording, and in any information storage and retrieval system, is forbidden without the written permission
of the publisher.

The web addresses cited in this text were current as of February 2013, unless otherwise noted.

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Assistant Editor: Amy Akin; Copyeditor: Patricia L. MacDonald; Proofreader: Red Inc.; Indexer: Susan Danzi
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To my supportive parents, Zack and Leigh, and my wonderful family, Donna, Sam,
and Molly.

—T. Christopher Greenwell

This book is proof that sometimes dreams do come true! This dream would not have
been achieved without the support of my meticulous proofreader and husband, Tim
Bussell; my best girl and daughter, Sophie Grace Bussell; my life-long supporter, my
dad, Fritz E. Danzey; and my guardian angel, my mother, Barbara W. Danzey. Thank
you to all who have supported me, tolerated me, and most of all encourage me along
this journey, especially my students who have impacted my life more than they will
ever know. I also owe a big debt of gratitude to Myles Schrag at Human Kinetics who
put up with my persistent nagging before helping to make this dream a reality. Finally,
thank you to my coauthors, Chris Greenwell and David Shonk, for allowing me to
contribute to this amazing book.

—Leigh Ann Danzey-Bussell

I dedicate this book to six instrumental teachers in my life:

1. My father, the late coach and professor of physical education, William E. Shonk,
who taught me how to teach and the important lessons of life.

2. My mother, Mary Aretta Shonk, whose unselfish love and persistent determina-
tion inspire me every day.

3. My brother, William S. Shonk, who taught me the importance of leadership
and teamwork.

4. My wife, Jennifer R. (Brady) Shonk, who is my love, inspiration, and the natural
born teacher in our household.

5. My uncle, James H. Shonk, who inspired me to write and taught me about team

6. My mentor, Chella, who always expected excellence and has given so much to
the field of sport management.

—David J. Shonk

Text Box
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PrefaCe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ix

Chapter 1 Understanding the sPort event indUstry 1
Career paths in Sport event Management 5

Skills, Knowledge, and traits for Success 6

Sport events Versus Nonsport events 7

Sport tourism 8

relationship Between Sport event Management and Sport
Facility Management 11

types of Sporting events 11

Summary 15

references 16

Chapter 2 event ConCePtUalization 19
event planning 21

Leadership and Decision Making in event Management 22

Brainstorming in event Management 24

purpose of the event 24

Choosing the type of event 25

SWOt analysis 26

Developing a Mission for the event 27

Setting Goals and Objectives 29

planning Logistics 29

thinking Creatively and planning for Uniqueness 30

planning promotional and ancillary Components 31

Developing an Operational timeline 32

planning for Contingencies 33

Summary 34

references 35

Chapter 3 event Bidding 37
Bidding process 39

Feasibility Studies 40

Bid Documents 41

Sports Commissions 42

Summary 44

references 45


Chapter 4 event staffing 47
Organizational Chart 49

Identifying Necessary Staff 50

Scheduling Staff 51

Considering Outsourcing Staff 53

Managing and Motivating Staff 54

personal Management Style and effective Leadership 56

Management Meetings 58

Communicating With Staff 59

Volunteers 61

team Building 62

Summary 63

references 64

Chapter 5 event BUdgeting 67
Stages of the Budgeting process 69

Budget Components 73

types of Budgets 73

types of revenues 74

types of agreements 77

types of expenses 79

Controlling Costs 83

Using Spreadsheets 84

Cash Flow and Cash Management 84

Summary 84

references 88

Chapter 6 event sPonsorshiP 91
Sponsorship 94

Sponsorship Components 95

Sponsorship Benefits 98

Components of a Sponsorship proposal 99

activation and evaluation techniques 100

Summary 101

references 102

Chapter 7 event Marketing 105
Developing a Marketing plan 108

target Marketing 109

the Marketing Mix 109

event promotion 111

attracting Spectators 115

Contents vii

attracting participants 115

Branding the event 116

electronic event Marketing 117

Creating Community Support 117

Summary 118

references 119

Chapter 8 Media ProMotion and relations 121
the Critical rs 124

Symbiotic relationship: Working together to achieve Greatness 124

Differentiating the promotional Mix From the Marketing Mix 125

promotional tools 126

Social Media: a “New” tool for Success 127

evaluating Success 128

Summary 129

references 130

Chapter 9 ContraCt Considerations 133
Contract Law 101 135

types of Contracts 136

tips for Negotiating Contracts 144

an attorney’s perspective: Neil Braslow, JD, on Contracts 144

Federal Legislation 147

Summary 147

references 148

Chapter 10 risk ManageMent and negligenCe 151
risk Management process 153

risk Management planning 155

threats to events 156

Crowd Control 157

Crowd Management plans 158

Negligence 160

Summary 161

references 165

Chapter 11 event serviCes and logistiCs 167
event timeline 169

event registration 170

ticket Sales 171

Food and Beverage Operations 171

Waste Management Services 174

Custodial Services 174


transportation Services 174

Lighting 175

Vendor relationships 176

event Facility Selection 176

Customer Service 181

awards Ceremonies 182

Summary 182

references 183

Chapter 12 event-day ManageMent 185
event Flow 190

alternative plans 190

Communication 190

Managing Staff 191

Managing Spectators 193

Managing participants 196

Managing Sponsors 199

easily Missed Details 201

Summary 202

references 202

Chapter 13 Postevent details and evalUation 205
postevent promotions 207

postevent Media Coverage 207

Sponsor Follow-Up 209

postevent Debriefing 209

event evaluation 210

evaluating Outcomes and Objectives 215

Measuring economic Impact 216

Summary 217

references 217

index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219

aBoUt the aUthors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .227


To have a successful career in sport, it is important
to have some proficiency in sport event manage-
ment because just about everyone involved in
sport will be engaged in planning, promoting, or
managing a sporting event at one time or another.
Sport event management is unique among the
many areas of sport management in that it inte-
grates various areas of the sport industry includ-
ing, but not limited to, marketing, sponsorship,
budgeting, risk management, and personnel
management. In addition, running a sporting
event requires the skills to plan, organize, lead,
and communicate. Users of this textbook should
be able to demonstrate an understanding of event
management principles unique to sport.

Managing Sport Events is written for those either
working in or aspiring to work in the sport indus-
try. One does not necessarily need to be working
in event management per se, as everyone working
with sporting events should be able to draw some-
thing from this text. This textbook is designed to
familiarize readers with principles and practices
related to effective event management. The text
approaches sport event management from a practi-
cal standpoint, integrating theory to support sug-
gestions for practice, and it takes readers through
the entire process of organizing events, from event
conception through postevent evaluation.

SCopE of thE Book
Considering the breadth of sporting events, this
book covers a wide variety of competitions, from
local grassroots events such as a youth soccer
tournament to mega-events such as the Olympic
Games. The reader should be able to glean relevant
information that applies to events large and small,
local and international. Further, Managing Sport
Events accounts for the various purposes events
serve (e.g., competition, revenue, tourism, pro-
moting a cause) and for the various stakeholders

sporting events may serve (e.g., athletes, govern-
ing bodies, sponsors, communities). Whether
the reader is working in parks and recreation or
in high school, college, amateur, minor league,
professional, or international sports, this book
should be a resource for anyone involved in sport-
ing events, regardless of size or scope.

Each chapter covers key sport event manage-
ment principles, and relevant examples from the
sport industry are woven into each principle to
illustrate how it applies to practice. In addition,
each chapter begins with a profile of an industry
professional in the form of an interview. These
profiles give an industry insider’s perspective into
each concept being discussed. Each chapter ends
with learning activities that apply what has been
learned in the text. Numerous checklists, tem-
plates, and worksheets are provided throughout
the book to illustrate tools that can be used to
successfully plan and implement events.

Managing Sport Events covers the main topics
necessary to plan, organize, implement, and
evaluate an event. The book opens with an over-
view of the sport event industry and a chapter that
educates readers on how to conceive and develop
an event. Next, the book covers key planning areas
such as staffing, budgeting, marketing, promotion,
sponsorship, and legal and risk management.
These chapters illustrate how different disciplines
within sport management specifically apply to
planning sporting events. Key operational areas
such as event services and logistics and manag-
ing the event are then presented to encompass
what happens during
the event itself. The
final chapter discusses
what needs to happen
after the event.

x preface

BEnEfitS of thE Book
Managing Sport Events is intended for practitioners
within the sport industry and students prepar-
ing to enter the industry. It provides a strong
conceptual, theoretical, and practical basis for
understanding the sport event industry and for
selecting, planning, implementing, and evaluating
a sporting event. The textbook helps the reader
to better understand the conceptual aspects of
a sporting event that form the basis of how the
event will ultimately be run. Conceptual skills
are vitally important to all managers, especially
event planners, and help to differentiate top-level
managers from middle- and staff-level managers
and leaders.

This textbook is written with the understanding
that the primary audience will be undergraduate
students. The majority of students will be study-
ing sport management. However, the text is also
applicable to students within any discipline of
study who desire to learn more about the nuts
and bolts of selecting, planning, implementing,
and evaluating an event. Students interested in
areas such as hospitality, entertainment, physi-
cal education, business, and nonprofit or public
administration may also find the textbook useful.

Event management is an important course for
almost every sport management program. More
important, employers within the sport industry
expect students to enter the field as young profes-
sionals with an understanding of event manage-
ment and possessing the necessary skills to imme-
diately engage in event production. Although not
every student will have the title of event planner,
every student within the sport industry will most
likely be engaged in some type of event planning,
even if it is only a meal function at your place of
business. Our hope is that this will not be one
of those books that students buy and sell back at
the end of the semester. Instead, this text should
serve as a continual resource as you graduate and
enter the industry.

This textbook is written to assist faculty in teach-
ing important theoretical and conceptual issues

within the context of sport event management.
These are important concepts that add to con-
ceptual and cognitive skill development in each
student. At the same time, the authors of the book
recognize the practical nature of event manage-
ment. We have extensive experience within the
industry in the area of event management, and
because we are also current faculty, we understand
the challenges of bringing fresh and relevant
practical material into the classroom.

Handy resources such as an instructor guide,
test package, and PowerPoint presentation are
included in the package for professors. Specific
instructions are provided should the faculty
member want to engage the students in the pro-
cess of putting on an actual event. Chapters are
organized to follow the process of staging an
event, and all chapters contain learning activities
to assist the faculty member in engaging students.
All chapters contain summaries that review key
concepts. Furthermore, each chapter provides a
short biography of a current industry professional
that may assist professors in experiential learning
using case studies.

Current industry
Those currently working within the sport indus-
try may need a refresher course in event man-
agement, and this text serves as an important
resource. Those needing additional training or
going back for a graduate degree will find the
textbook helpful. In addition, the text is useful as
an independent study and as a resource for writing
industry reports or proposals. It will help industry
professionals brush up on key definitions and is a
refresher for key theoretical concepts. Every sport
industry professional should keep this text on his
bookshelf because of its practical nature.

nEED for thE Book
Most of us who attend an event do so as an invi-
tee, not fully understanding the vastness of what
it takes to host an event. Managing Sport Events
provides a comprehensive look at what it takes
to produce a successful event from conception to
fruition to evaluation. As a dynamic field, sport
management encompasses traditional business


segments (administration, finance, and market-
ing) requiring expertise. The uniqueness of the
sport industry must be understood and applied to
event management. This book marries the busi-
ness side with the unique traits of sport to provide
a fresh perspective on event management.

Marketing, risk management, staffing, budget-
ing, and sponsorship are just a few areas of concern
for event managers. Being knowledgeable about
these topics and the role each plays in the bigger
picture is imperative for today’s sport management
students. This textbook provides a distinctive per-
spective on the “how to” aspects of sport manage-
ment and its intricacies. The years of experience
expressed throughout this book and the industry

profiles found in each chapter offer the students
great perspectives and real-life examples to con-
template and critically analyze. Many textbooks
focus on singular aspects of the sport management
field, such as sport marketing, sport finance, or
sport media relations, but this text represents an
inclusive look at event management and how those
singular aspects work together to provide a strong
foundation for students considering careers in this
segment of the industry. We have taken great effort
to ensure this textbook addresses all pertinent
areas of event management. Upon completion of
this course, readers will have a comprehensive
knowledge of event management and will be pre-
pared to accept the challenges of the field.

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Chapter 1

Understanding the Sport
event Industry

Chapter Objectives

After completing the chapter, the reader should be able to do the following:

❚ Appreciate the role of sporting events from a historical perspective.

❚ Identify various types of sporting events.

❚ Recognize the employment opportunities in sport event management and the skills
and knowledge necessary for success within the industry.

❚ Compare and contrast sporting events versus nonsporting events.

❚ Understand the relationship of sport event management to sport facility management
and sport tourism.


Industry profile } talty O’Connor
Talty O’Connor is the founder and president of
Covey Communications Corporation, a media
company that publishes nationally distributed
magazines for targeted markets. Among its titles
are ConventionSouth, one of the leading magazines
in the United States for meeting and convention
planners; SportsEvents, a magazine for planners of
all types of sporting events held throughout the
United States; Condo Owner magazine (Northern
Gulf Coast Edition); Coastal Design, a high-end
home-design magazine; and Crossties magazine,
an internationally known railroad industry pub-
lication. Covey Communications also publishes
Skater’s Edge Sourcebook, an ice skating directory,
and has also produced two additional sport facili-
ties directories, Soccer Fields & Facilities Directory
and Baseball/Softball Fields & Facilities Directory.

Q: How has the sport event industry changed
over the years?

A: Organized sport competitions are simply big
business these days. While we once based
youth sports on local league championships,
the industry now revolves around travel teams
and elite athletes. Parents, coaches, and players
spend enormous amounts of time and money
participating in sport competitions, often trav-
eling on a weekly basis to compete. The loss of
“sports sampling” is another significant change
and is a casualty of modern-day sports special-
ization. Rather than changing sports with the
seasons, today’s young athletes tend to settle
on one sport on a year-round basis. Whether
this is detrimental to the development of well-
rounded athletic skills and conducive to early
burnout are topics of hot debate and lengthy
discussion. The industry shifts and changes
slightly with each generation. Male athletes
dominated the generation of Baby Boomer
sports participants. Young female athletes did
not have the opportunities to participate that
they have today. Generation X tended to be
more individualistic and less team oriented.
They opened the door to extreme sports and
introduced us to BMX racing and snowboard-
ing. Generation Y are more team oriented and

are the force behind today’s travel team sports.
As for Gen Z, they are more social and con-
nected than any generation. The jury is out as
to whether we can attract them to organized
sports, and the industry acknowledges the fact
that we need to change our events in order to
engage these digital natives.

Q: What skills are most important to students
who would like to work in the sport event

A: Although sport management revolves around
modern technology and social media connec-
tivity, it remains a business of relationships.
In my opinion, the fundamentals for success
are unchanged in that effective managers need
excellent communication and people skills as
well as good business management skills. If
anything, excelling with these skills will be an
even greater asset as we continue to slide into
the digital world.

Q: How important is facility management within
the industry?

A: Excellent facilities are available throughout the
country. The differentiating factor is how well
they are managed. Build it and they will come
doesn’t work. Build it and manage it better than
the other facility is the key to success. I have
been a member of the United States Olympic
Committee’s PLAYS committee. PLAYS is an
acronym for Pipeline Leadership for America’s
Youth Sports. The question asked was “What is
the best way to get more sport competitions at
our sport facility?” The answer was universal:
“Run excellent sport events at your facility, and
the word will spread throughout the pipeline!”

Q: How has sport tourism affected the industry?

A: The revenue from sport tourism is the fund-
ing source for most modern sport facilities.
Communities typically invest in new sport
complexes with a goal of drawing visitors into
the city. The visitors spend significant amounts
of money staying in hotel rooms, dining out
at restaurants, visiting local attractions, and

Understanding the Sport event Industry 3

shopping in local stores. This direct spending …

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