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follow the grading rubric to write the reflection.

Leadership Intervention Reflection Paper (25 points)

In the past few weeks, you practiced observation skills by watching Invictus, a movie that tells “the inspiring true story of how Nelson Mandela joined forces with the captain of South Africa’s rugby team to help unite their country.”[footnoteRef:1]. While watching the film, you were instructed to pay special attention to the factors relating to group dynamics for teams, which include but are not limited to: [1: alfiehitchie (2016). Storyline. Retrieved from]

1. Team beginnings

2. Leader’s behaviours

3. Communication patterns

4. Conflict resolution style

5. Power styles

6. Decision making style

7. Creativity

8. Diversity

You were also instructed to identify interventions/ style developed by different leaders in the film.

Write a paper (1500 – 2000 words) with your responses to the following three questions:

Each answer should have at least 2 quote .

1. Which leadership intervention has impressed you the most?

2. How does a leader contribute to the development of this intervention?

3. If you were that leader, do you think you could or would want to develop a different intervention?

Grading Rubric

Identified Leadership Intervention (3 points)

Emerging (1)

Developing (2)

Mastering (3)

Student describes the leadership intervention with some aspects incorrect or confused.

Student identifies and summarizes the leadership intervention with most aspects accurate.

Student clearly and accurately identifies and summarizes the leadership intervention with key details included.

Background (4 points)

Emerging (1)

Developing (2)

Mastering (3)

Student does not attempt to or fails to identify and describe the background, in which the identified leadership intervention is developed.

Student clearly identifies and summarizes key background information such as key players, timeline, and context of the identified leadership intervention although in a limited way.

Student summarizes relevant background information accurately and interprets the information with consideration of assumptions and their implications. This may include additional research and identification of potential biases.

Discussion (10 points) 

Emerging (1 – 4)

Developing (5 – 7)

Mastering (8 – 9)

Student does not attempt to or fails to identify and summarize critical issues related to the identified leadership intervention.

Student does not analyze a leader’s contribution to the identified intervention from the perspective of a chosen theory and engages ideas that are obvious or agreeable.

Student does not attempt to or fails to analyze a leader’s worldview in the development of the identified intervention.

Student analyzes the priority set by a leader in a simplistic way with little consideration of the organization’s goals.

Student identifies and summarizes critical issues related to the identified leadership intervention. Most aspects are accurate, but nuances and key details are missing or glossed over.

Student clearly analyzes a leader’s contribution to the identified intervention from the perspective of a chosen theory and engages challenging ideas tentatively although he/she may dismiss alternative views hastily.

Student analyzes the integration of a leader’s worldview in the development of the identified intervention although in a limited way.

Student clearly analyzes priority set by a leader based on accurate understanding of the organization’s goals.

Student clearly and accurately identifies and summarizes subsidiary, embedded, or implicit aspects of the critical issues related to the identified leadership intervention.

Student clearly analyzes a leader’s contribution to the identified intervention from the perspectives of a variety of theories and engages integrating a leader’s ideas with others’ ideas.

Student clearly connects a leader’s worldview and the development of the identified intervention in a precise meaningful way.

Student analyzes priority set by a leader in a sophisticated way, integrating a leader’s thoughts in line with accurate understanding of the organization’s goals.  

Reflection on Possible Alternative Intervention (8 points)

Emerging (1 – 2)

Developing (3 – 4)

Mastering (5)

Student does not attempt to or fails to reflect on possible alternative intervention.

Student shows little evidence of reflection on his/her own worldview and assumptions.

Student reflects on possible alternative intervention in a limited way. For example, his/her proposed alternative is not really viable.

Student shows some evidence of reflection on his/her own worldview and assumptions.

Student clearly reflects on possible alternative intervention and justifies his/her answer with support from information relevant to the assigned case. This may include additional research.

Student shows strong evidence of reflection on his/her own worldview and assumptions.

Group Dynamics for Teams
5th Edition

SAGE was founded in 1965 by Sara Miller McCune to support the dissemination of
usable knowledge by publishing innovative and high-quality research and teaching
content. Today, we publish more than 850 journals, including those of more than
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Los Angeles | London | New Delhi | Singapore | Washington DC

Group Dynamics for Teams

5th Edition

Daniel Levi
California Polytechnic State University, San Luis


Los Angeles

New Delhi

Washington DC

Copyright © 2017 by SAGE Publications, Inc.

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form
or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or
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from the publisher.


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15 16 17 18 19 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Brief Contents

1. Acknowledgments
2. About the Author
3. Introduction

1. Chapter 1. Understanding Teams
2. Chapter 2. Defining Team Success

1. Chapter 3. Team Beginnings
2. Chapter 4. Understanding the Basic Team Processes
3. Chapter 5. Cooperation and Competition
4. Chapter 6. Communication

1. Chapter 7. Managing Conflict
2. Chapter 8. Power and Social Influence
3. Chapter 9. Decision Making
4. Chapter 10. Leadership
5. Chapter 11. Problem Solving
6. Chapter 12. Creativity
7. Chapter 13. Diversity

1. Chapter 14. Team, Organizational, and International Culture
2. Chapter 15. Virtual Teamwork
3. Chapter 16. Evaluating and Rewarding Teams
4. Chapter 17. Team Building and Team Training

8. Appendix: Guide to Student Team Projects
9. References
10. Index

Detailed Contents

1. Acknowledgments
2. About the Author
3. Introduction

1. Chapter 1. Understanding Teams
1. Learning Objectives
2. 1.1 Defining Groups and Teams
3. 1.2 Purposes and Types of Teams

1. How Teams Are Used by Organizations
2. Classifying Teams

4. 1.3 Why Organizations Use Teams
1. Job Characteristics
2. Organizational Characteristics

5. 1.4 History of Teams and Group Dynamics
1. Foundations of Teamwork
2. Foundations of Group Dynamics

6. Leading Virtual Teams: Virtual Meetings and Virtual Collaboration—
Selecting Technologies to Use for Your Team

7. Summary
8. Team Leader’s Challenge 1
9. Survey: Attitudes Toward Teamwork
10. Activity: Working in Teams

2. Chapter 2. Defining Team Success
1. Learning Objectives
2. 2.1 Nature of Team Success

1. Completing the Task
2. Developing Social Relations
3. Benefiting the Individual

3. 2.2 Conditions for Team Success
1. Team Composition
2. Characteristics of the Task
3. Group Process
4. Organizational Context

4. 2.3 Characteristics of Successful Teams
5. 2.4 Positive Psychology View of Team Success
6. 2.5 Using Teams in the Workplace

1. Benefits of Teamwork
2. Problems of Teamwork
3. When the Use of Teams Becomes a Fad

7. Summary
8. Team Leader’s Challenge 2
9. Activity: Understanding Team Success

1. Chapter 3. Team Beginnings

1. Learning Objectives
2. 3.1 Stages of Teamwork

1. Group Development Perspective
2. Project Development Perspective
3. Cyclical Perspective
4. Implications of Team Development Stages

3. 3.2 Group Socialization
4. 3.3 Team Goals

1. Value and Characteristics of Goals
2. Hidden Agendas

5. 3.4 Team Norms
1. How Norms Are Formed
2. Impact of Team Norms

6. 3.5 Application: Jump-Starting Project Teams
1. Team Warm-Ups
2. Project Definitions and Planning
3. Team Contract

7. Leading Virtual Teams: Starting a Virtual Team
8. Summary
9. Team Leader’s Challenge 3
10. Activity: Observing Team Norms
11. Activity: Developing a Team Contract

2. Chapter 4. Understanding the Basic Team Processes
1. Learning Objectives
2. 4.1 Motivation

1. Social Loafing
2. Increasing Team Motivation

3. 4.2 Group Cohesion
1. How Cohesion Affects the Team’s Performance
2. Building Group Cohesion

4. 4.3 Team Roles
1. Role Problems

2. Types of Team Meeting Roles
5. 4.4 Task and Social Behaviors

1. Value of Social Behaviors
6. 4.5 Team Adaptation and Learning

1. Reflexivity
2. Using Feedback
3. Group Process Observations

7. Leading Virtual Teams: Motivating Participation in Virtual Meetings
8. Summary
9. Team Leader’s Challenge 4
10. Activity: Observing Task and Social Behaviors

3. Chapter 5. Cooperation and Competition
1. Learning Objectives
2. 5.1 Teamwork as a Mixed-Motive Situation
3. 5.2 Why Are People in Teams Competitive?

1. Culture
2. Personality
3. Organizational Rewards

4. 5.3 Problems With Competition
1. Communication and Goal Confusion
2. Intergroup Competition
3. When Is Competition Appropriate?

5. 5.4 Benefits of and Problems With Cooperation
1. Benefits of Cooperation
2. Problems With Cooperation
3. Competitive Versus Cooperative Rewards

6. 5.5 Application: Encouraging Cooperation
1. Common Goals
2. Rebuilding Trust and Communication
3. Encouraging Altruistic Norms
4. Negotiating Cooperation

7. Leading Virtual Teams: Building Trust and Social Relationships
8. Summary
9. Team Leader’s Challenge 5
10. Survey: Cooperative, Competitive, or Individualistic Orientation
11. Activity: Understanding Competitive Versus Cooperative Goals

4. Chapter 6. Communication
1. Learning Objectives
2. 6.1 Communication Process

1. Verbal Communication

2. Nonverbal Communication
3. Communication Within Teams

3. 6.2 Flow of a Team’s Communications
1. Dysfunctional Information Processing Within the Team
2. Gender and Communication
3. Building Trust
4. Psychological Safety
5. Communication Climates

4. 6.3 Emotional Intelligence
5. 6.4 Facilitating Team Meetings
6. 6.5 Communication Skills for Team Meetings
7. Leading Virtual Teams: Running Virtual Meetings to Ensure

Everyone Is Following the Agenda and People Arrive at the Same

8. Summary
9. Team Leader’s Challenge 6
10. Survey: Team Emotional Intelligence
11. Activity: Observing Communication Patterns in a Team

1. Chapter 7. Managing Conflict

1. Learning Objectives
2. 7.1 Conflict Is Normal
3. 7.2 Sources of Conflict
4. 7.3 Impact of Conflict

1. Benefits of and Problems With Conflict
2. Conflict in Work Teams
3. Conflict Management

5. 7.4 Conflict Resolution Approaches
1. Two Dimensions of Conflict
2. Comparing Different Approaches to Conflict Resolution

6. 7.5 Managing Team Conflicts
1. Preparing for Conflicts
2. Facilitating Conflicts
3. Virtual Team Conflicts
4. Negotiating Conflicts

7. Leading Virtual Teams: Reducing Conflict and Developing

8. Summary
9. Team Leader’s Challenge 7
10. Survey: Conflict Resolution Styles

11. Activity: Observing Conflict Resolution Styles
2. Chapter 8. Power and Social Influence

1. Learning Objectives
2. 8.1 Definitions of Power and Social Influence

1. Conformity
2. Obedience

3. 8.2 Types of Power
1. Bases of Power
2. Influence Tactics

4. 8.3 Power Dynamics
1. Status and the Corrupting Effect of Power
2. Unequal Power in a Team
3. Minority Influence
4. Impact of Interdependence

5. 8.4 Empowerment
1. Degrees of Empowerment Programs
2. Successful Empowerment Programs

6. 8.5 Application: Acting Assertively
1. Power Styles
2. Use of Power Styles
3. Encouraging Assertiveness

7. Leading Virtual Teams: Ensuring Dissenting Voices Are Heard and
Empowering the Team

8. Summary
9. Team Leader’s Challenge 8
10. Activity: Using Power Styles—Passive, Aggressive, and Assertive

3. Chapter 9. Decision Making
1. Learning Objectives
2. 9.1 Value of Group Decision Making

1. Advantages and Disadvantages of Group Decision Making
2. When Are Group Decisions Superior to Individual Decisions?

3. 9.2 Approaches to Group Decision Making
1. Evaluating Group Decision-Making Approaches
2. Normative Decision-Making Theory

4. 9.3 Decision-Making Problems
1. Causes of Group Decision-Making Problems
2. Group Polarization
3. Groupthink

5. 9.4 Decision-Making Techniques
1. Nominal Group Technique

2. Delphi Technique
3. Ringi Technique
4. Evaluation of Decision-Making Techniques

6. 9.5 Application: Consensus Decision Making
7. Leading Virtual Teams: Encouraging Agreement on a Decision
8. Summary
9. Team Leader’s Challenge 9
10. Activity: Making Consensus Decisions
11. Activity: Group Versus Individual Decision Making

4. Chapter 10. Leadership
1. Learning Objectives
2. 10.1 Alternative Designs of Leadership for Teams

1. Characteristics of Team Leadership
2. Shared Leadership
3. Leader Emergence

3. 10.2 Approaches to Leadership
1. Trait or Personality Approach
2. Behavioral Approach
3. Situational Approach
4. Contingency Approach

4. 10.3 Situational Leadership Theory
5. 10.4 Self-Managing Teams

1. Leading Self-Managing Teams
2. Motivating Self-Managing Teams
3. Success of Self-Managing Teams

6. 10.5 Application: The Functional Approach to Leading Teams
1. Providing a Context for Teams
2. Facilitating Internal Operations
3. Team Coaching

7. Leading Virtual Teams: New Approaches to Leadership in Virtual

8. Summary
9. Team Leader’s Challenge 10
10. Survey: Leadership Styles
11. Activity: Observing the Leader’s Behavior

5. Chapter 11. Problem Solving
1. Learning Objectives
2. 11.1 Approaches to Problem Solving
3. 11.2 Descriptive Approach: How Teams Solve Problems
4. 11.3 Functional Approach: Advice on Improving Team Problem

1. Factors That Improve Team Problem Solving
2. Factors That Hurt Team Problem Solving

5. 11.4 Prescriptive Approach: Rational Problem-Solving Model
1. Problem Recognition, Definition, and Analysis
2. Generating Alternatives and Selecting a Solution
3. Implementation and Evaluation

6. 11.5 Problem-Solving Teams
7. 11.6 Application: Problem-Solving Techniques for Teams

1. Problem Analysis
2. Criteria Matrix
3. Action Plans
4. Force Field Analysis

8. Summary
9. Team Leader’s Challenge 11
10. Activity: Using Problem-Solving Techniques

6. Chapter 12. Creativity
1. Learning Objectives
2. 12.1 Creativity and Its Characteristics
3. 12.2 Individual Creativity
4. 12.3 Group Creativity

1. Problems With Group Creativity
2. Brainstorming
3. Strengths of Team Creativity
4. Creativity as an Ongoing Team Process

5. 12.4 Organizational Environment and Creativity
6. 12.5 Application: Team Creativity Techniques

1. Brainstorming
2. Nominal Group Technique and Brainwriting
3. Selecting a Solution
4. Multiple-Stage Creativity Approaches

7. Leading Virtual Teams: Virtual Creativity
8. Summary
9. Team Leader’s Challenge 12
10. Activity: Comparing Different Creativity Techniques

7. Chapter 13. Diversity
1. Learning Objectives
2. 13.1 The Nature of Diversity

1. Why Diversity Is Important Now
2. Types of Diversity

3. How Diversity Affects a Team
3. 13.2 Problems of Diversity

1. Misperception
2. Emotional Distrust
3. Failure to Use Team Resources

4. 13.3 Causes of Diversity Problems
1. Diversity as a Cognitive Process
2. Team Leader
3. Diversity as a Social Process

5. 13.4 Effects of Diversity
1. Research on the Effects of Diversity on Teams
2. Cross-Functional Teams

6. 13.5 Application: Creating a Context to Support Diversity
1. Increasing Awareness
2. Improving Group Process Skills
3. Creating a Safe Environment
4. Improving Organizational Issues

7. Summary
8. Team Leader’s Challenge 13
9. Survey: Attitudes Toward Diversity
10. Activity: Understanding Gender and Status Differences in a Team

1. Chapter 14. Team, Organizational, and International Culture

1. Learning Objectives
2. 14.1 Team Culture
3. 14.2 Defining Organizational Culture
4. 14.3 Organizational Culture and Teamwork
5. 14.4 Dimensions of International Culture

1. Individualism Versus Collectivism
2. Power and Status
3. Uncertainty and Risk Avoidance
4. Comparing the United States and Japan

6. 14.5 International Differences in Teamwork
7. 14.6 Transnational Teams

1. Characteristics of Transnational Teams
2. Creating Effective Transnational Teams

8. Leading Virtual Teams: Dealing With Cultural Issues
9. Summary
10. Team Leader’s Challenge 14
11. Survey: Individualism–Collectivism

12. Activity: Evaluating a Team’s Culture and Cultural Context
13. Activity: Comparing United States and Japanese Teams

2. Chapter 15. Virtual Teamwork
1. Learning Objectives
2. 15.1 Use of Communication Technologies

1. Communication Technologies and Teams
2. Characteristics of Communication Technologies

3. 15.2 Communication Impacts
1. Status Differences
2. Anonymity
3. Miscommunication
4. Communication Norms

4. 15.3 Team Impacts
1. Task Performance in Virtual Teams
2. Decision Making
3. Social Relations

5. 15.4 Selecting the Right Technology
1. Factors to Consider When Selecting Technology
2. Matching Technology to the Team and Task

6. 15.5 Challenge of Virtual Teams
1. Team Building in Virtual Teams
2. Future of Virtual Teams

7. Summary
8. Team Leader’s Challenge 15
9. Activity: Developing Netiquette for Virtual Teams
10. Activity: Experiencing Teamwork in a Simulated Virtual Team

3. Chapter 16. Evaluating and Rewarding Teams
1. Learning Objectives
2. 16.1 Team Performance Evaluations

1. Types of Evaluations
2. Types of Measures
3. Participation in the Evaluation Process
4. Problems and Biases With Team Evaluations

3. 16.2 Reward Systems
1. Types of Approach
2. Hybrid Approaches

4. 16.3 Rewarding Individual Team Members
1. Changing Base Pay
2. Skill-Based Pay

5. 16.4 Team and Organizational Reward Programs

1. Team Recognition Programs
2. Organizational Rewards

6. 16.5 Relationship of Rewards to Types of Teams
1. Types of Teams
2. Linking Rewards to Types of Team

7. Summary
8. Team Leader’s Challenge 16
9. Survey: Individual Versus Team Rewards
10. Activity: Evaluating and Rewarding a Project Team
11. Activity: Team Halo Effect

4. Chapter 17. Team Building and Team Training
1. Learning Objectives
2. 17.1 What Is Team Building?

1. Organizational Context of Team Building
2. Evaluating Team-Building Programs

3. 17.2 Does Your Team Need Team Building?
4. 17.3 Types of Team-Building Programs

1. Goal Setting
2. Role Clarification
3. Interpersonal Process Skills
4. Cohesion Building
5. Problem Solving

5. 17.4 Team Training
1. Training the Team Together
2. Planning for the Transfer of Training

6. 17.5 Types of Training
1. Team Resource Management Training
2. Cross-Training and Interpositional Training
3. Action Learning

7. Summary
8. Team Leader’s Challenge 17
9. Activity: Team Building
10. Activity: Appreciative Inquiry of Teamwork

8. Appendix: Guide to Student Team Projects
1. A.1 Starting the Team

1. Team Warm-Ups
2. Development of a Team Contract
3. Leadership and Meeting Roles
4. Managing Team Technology

2. A.2 Planning and Developing the Project

1. Challenge the Assignment
2. Generation of Project Ideas
3. Brainwriting Method
4. Project Planning
5. Roles and Assignments
6. Reevaluation of the Project and Approach

3. A.3 Monitoring the Project and Maintaining Teamwork
1. Team Meetings: Sharing Information, Making Decisions, and

Tracking Assignments
2. Group Process Evaluations
3. Managing Problem Behaviors
4. Milestone: Midpoint Evaluation

4. A.4 Performing Team Writing
1. Overall Strategy
2. Division of Work

5. A.5 Wrapping Up and Completing the Project
1. Milestone: Precompletion Planning
2. Team Evaluations
3. Celebrating Success and Learning From the Experience

9. References
10. Index


Many people helped shape this book. My understanding of work teams, including
both manufacturing and professional teams, was fostered by the many opportunities
I had to study and consult with actual teams in industry. Andrew Young, Margaret
Lawn, and Don Devito created a number of opportunities for me to work with teams
in the United States and abroad. Most of my research and consulting on work teams
was performed with Charles Slem, my partner at Cal Poly, San Luis Obispo. As a
teacher of group dynamics, I learned by coteaching with Fred Stultz and Robert
Christenson. In addition, I had the opportunity to work with engineering teams at Cal
Poly as part of a NASA-supported program to improve engineering education.
Daniel Mittleman, associate professor of Computing and Digital Media at DePaul
University, helped me understand the impacts of virtual teamwork and contributed to
the Leading Virtual Teams sections of the book. David Askay, assistant professor of
Communications Studies at Cal Poly, wrote the Communication chapter (Chapter 6)
and contributed ideas and sections on the impacts of diversity and the use of
technology by teams. Finally, the psychology, business, and engineering students in
my group dynamics and teamwork classes have helped teach me what is important
about how teams operate.

The support of various editors at SAGE Publications has been invaluable. I have
also benefited from the many anonymous academic reviews of the book and
proposed revisions. In addition, Kathy Johnston and Sara Kocher labored diligently
to improve my language and make the text more readable. My wife, Sara, deserves
special credit for her thoughtful reviews and supportive presence throughout this

For comprehensive reviews of the manuscript, I would like to thank the following

Mark A. Arvisais, Towson University

Kerrie Q. Baker, Cedar Crest College

Anita Leffel, The University of Texas at San Antonio

Russell O. Mays, Georgia Southern University

Kevin L. Nadal, John Jay College of Criminal Justice

C. Kevin Synnott, Eastern Connecticut State University

About the Author

Daniel Levi
is a professor in the Psychology and Child Development Department at Cal
Poly, San Luis Obispo, California. He holds an MA and a PhD in environmental
psychology from the University of Arizona. He teaches classes in teamwork
and in environmental and organizational psychology. His teamwork class was
designed primarily for engineering and business students at Cal Poly. He has
conducted research and worked as a consultant with factory and engineering
teams for companies, such as Nortel Networks, TRW, Hewlett-Packard, and
Philips Electronics. In addition, he has worked on international team research
projects in Europe and Asia.
Dr. Levi’s research and consulting with factory teams primarily focused on the
use of teams to support technological change and the adoption of just-in-time
and quality programs. This work examined a variety of team issues, including
job redesign, training, compensation, supervision, and change management
approaches. His work with professional teams primarily was accomplished
with engineering design teams. These projects examined the use of concurrent
engineering, self-management, and the globalization of teams. The topics of
this work included the impact of information technology on teams, facilitation
and training needs for professional teams, and the impacts of organizational
culture and leadership.
Early work on the present book was sponsored by an engineering education
grant from NASA. This project focused on the development of teamwork skills
in engineering students working on multidisciplinary projects. This project led
to the development of cases and activities for learning teamwork skills and
research on teamwork training, and evaluating and rewarding student teams.
Recent research on student teams examines gender and cross-cultural issues,
social support within teams, and bullying and hijacking in student teams.

David Askay
is an assistant professor in the Communications Studies Department at Cal
Poly, San Luis Obispo. He earned a PhD in Organizational Science from the
University of North Carolina at Charlotte (2013) and teaches in the areas of
groups, organizations, and technology.


There are two sources of information about teamwork. First, there is a large body
of research in psychology and the social sciences called group dynamics that
examines how people work in small groups. This research was collected over the
past century and has developed into a broad base of knowledge about the operation
of groups. Second, the use of teams in the workplace has expanded rapidly during
the past three decades. Management researchers and applied social scientists have
studied this development to provide advice to organizations about how to make
teams operate more effectively. However, these two areas of research and
knowledge often operate along separate paths.

The purpose of this book is to unite these two important perspectives on how people
work together. It organizes research and theories of group dynamics in order to
apply this information to the ways in which teams operate in organizations. The
concepts of group dynamics are presented so they are useful for people who work
in teams and also to enlarge their understandings of how teams operate. It is hoped
that this integration helps readers better understand the internal dynamics of teams
so they can become more effective team leaders and members.

The larger goal of this book is to make teams more successful. Teams are important
in our society, and learning teamwork skills is important for individual career
success. This book presents many concepts related to how teams operate. In
addition, the chapters contain application sections with techniques, advice for
leading virtual teams, case studies (called Team Leader’s Challenge), surveys, and
activities designed to develop teamwork skills. The appendix contains tools and
advice to help students in project teams. Teamwork is not just something one reads
about and then understands; teamwork develops through guided experience and
feedback. This book provides a framework for teaching about teams and improving
how teams function.


The seventeen chapters in this book cover a wide range of topics related to group
dynamics and teamwork. These chapters are organized into four parts:
characteristics of teams, processes of teamwork, issues teams face, and
organizational context of teams. An appendix provides advice and tools to support
student project teams.

Part I: Characteristics of Teams

Chapters 1 and 2 provide an introduction to group dynamics and teamwork. Chapter
1 explains the differences between groups and teams. This chapter also examines the
purpose of teams in organizations and why they are increasing in use. It concludes
with a brief history of both the use of teams and the study of group dynamics.

Chapter 2 explores the characteristics of successful teams. It explains the basic
components necessary to create effective teams and examines the conditions and
characteristics of successful work teams. It presents both traditional perspectives
toward team success and a positive psychology perspective. In many ways, this
chapter establishes a goal for team members, whereas the rest of the book explains
how to reach that goal.

Part II: Processes of Teamwork

Chapters 3 through 6 present the underlying processes of teamwork. Chapter 3
examines the processes and stages that relate to forming teams. Team members must
be socialized or incorporated into teams. Teams must establish goals and norms
(operating rules) to begin work. These are the first steps in team development.

Chapter 4 presents some of the main processes and concepts from group dynamics
that explain how teams operate. Working together as a team affects the motivation of
participants both positively and negatively. Team members form social
relationships with one another that help define their identities as teams. Teams
divide tasks into different roles to coordinate the work. The behaviors and actions
of team members can be viewed as either task oriented or social, both of which are
necessary for teams to function smoothly. Teams are dynamic entities that adapt to
changes and learn how to work together more effectively.

One of the underlying concepts that define teamwork is cooperation. Teams are a
collection of people who work cooperatively together to accomplish goals.

However, teams often are disrupted by competition. Chapter 5 explains how
cooperation and competition affect the dynamics of teams.

Team members interact by communicating with one another. Chapter 6 examines the
communication that occurs within teams. It describes the communication process,
how teams develop supportive communication climates, and the effects of
emotional intelligence on communication. The chapter also presents practical
advice on how to facilitate team meetings and develop skills that help improve team

Part III: Issues Teams Face

The third part of the book contains seven chapters that focus on a variety of issues
that teams face in learning to operate effectively. Chapter 7 examines conflict and
conflict resolution in teams. Although conflict often is viewed as a negative event,
certain types of conflict are both healthy and necessary for teams to succeed. The
chapter explains the dynamics of conflict within teams and discusses various
approaches to managing conflict in teams.

Chapter 8 describes how power and social influence operate in teams. Different
types of power and influence tactics are available to teams and their members; the
use of power has wide-ranging applications and effects on teams. In one important
sense, the essence of teams at work is a shift in power. Teams exist because their
organizations are willing to shift power and control to teams.

The central purpose of many types of teams is to make decisions. Chapter 9
examines group decision-making processes. It illustrates operative conditions when
teams are better than individuals at making decisions and the problems that groups
encounter in trying to make effective decisions. The chapter ends with a presentation
of decision-making techniques that are useful for teams.

Chapter 10 presents leadership options for teams from authoritarian control to self-
management. The various approaches to understanding leadership are reviewed,
with an emphasis on leadership models that are useful for understanding team
leadership. The chapter examines self-managing teams in detail to illustrate this
important alternative to traditional leadership approaches.

The different methods that teams use to solve problems are examined in Chapter 11.
The chapter compares how teams solve problems with how teams should solve
problems. The chapter presents a variety of problem-solving techniques to help
improve how teams analyze and solve problems.

Creativity, which is one aspect of teams that often is criticized, is discussed in
Chapter 12. Teams can inhibit individual creativity, but some problems require
teams to develop creative solutions. The chapter examines the factors that
discourage creativity in teams and presents some techniques that foster team

Chapter 13 examines how diversity affects teams: the problems, causes, and effects.
In one sense, if everyone were alike then there would be no need for teamwork.
Teams benefit from the multiple perspectives inherent in diversity; however, group
processes need to be managed effectively in order to realize these benefits.

Part IV: Organizational Context of Teams

The final section of the book presents a set of issues that relate to the use of teams in
organizations. Chapter 14 examines the relationship between teams and culture.
Culture defines the underlying values and practices of a team or organization.
Teams develop cultures that regulate how they operate. Work teams are more likely
to be successful if their organization’s culture supports them. International culture
has many impacts on teamwork. Transnational teams need to develop a hybrid
culture that mediates the cultural differences among its members.

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