Chat with us, powered by LiveChat demonstrate your understanding of alignment in developing your doctoral program 1 Assignment: Final | Max paper
  

demonstrate your understanding of alignment in developing your doctoral program

1

Assignment: Final Assignment

In your final paper, demonstrate your understanding of alignment in developing your doctoral paper. This paper should build on your previous papers in this class. Therefore, it is acceptable for you to use the same material that you have previously written, as long as you have completed all revisions from your Instructor’s feedback.

To prepare:

· Review feedback from your Instructor and peers.

· Make revisions, as required.

By Day 7

To complete:

Your paper should be 5–10 pages (not including title page or references) and include 2–3 paragraphs with citations for each of these elements:

· Problem Statement

· Purpose

· Framework

· Research Question(s)

· Methodology

References

Single, P. B. (2010). Demystifying dissertation writing: A streamlined process from choice of topic to final text. Sterling, VA: Stylus Publishing.

· Chapter 2, “Choosing a Topic and an Adviser” (pp. 45–47)

Thomas, G. (2017). How to do your research project: A guide for students (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage

· Chapter 2, “Preparing: Project Management, Ethics and Getting Clearance” (pp. 34-36)

Week 11 Assignment: Research Problem Development

**Replace this line with your full name** Comment by Research: How to use this template: Where you see text or information bracketed by asterisks, you must replace that text with your updated information; your own work.

**Replace this line with your EDD/EDS specialization**

Walden University

Working Title

Background 1 paragraph

In this section, write one good paragraph that sets the stage for your research problem. Use the MEAL plan for organizing the paragraph to pursue doctoral-level standards for scholarly writing. The mnemonic MEAL has four letters, so all scholarly paragraphs will have a minimum of four sentences.

·
M
Your first sentence must be a topic sentence that states the
m
ain idea of the paragraph.

·
E
The next
e
vidence sentence(s) reports 3 references to research that substantiate(s) the main idea. Because they report evidence, all sentences in the evidence paragraph element require APA citations with references.

·
A
Provide at least one
a
nalysis sentence in your own words. Do not use quotations. Analysis sentences connect the evidence back to the main idea of the paragraph. The best analysis sentences are also cited with references.

·
L
Let’s conclude. Finally, end your paragraph let’s conclude sentence. Start the sentence with “Therefore…” or “So…” or similar. This does not require citations. Review the Exemplar paper to see a background paragraph that was scored high on the assignment rubric.** Comment by Research: When your instructor reads your paragraph, s/he will be looking to fit each sentence into one of these four MEAL plan elements, and in the proper order. Author opinions communicate bias; an APA taboo, and they do not fit any of the MEAL plan elements. Do not include your opinions!

Problem Statement

(with 3-5 citations to evidence that the problem exists)

One paragraph – write one straightforward, sentence stating the problem. Make it clear, specific, & unambiguous. By “specific” we mean as narrow a problem as practical. Then provide 3-5 references to evidence that the problem exists in the current research literature. Explain in your own words, no quotations, please. If the problem is that the apples have worms in them, give evidence that the apples have worms in them. Don’t write about the benefit of apples, the cost of apples, or anything else about apples. Give evidence that the problem exists…that the apples do, indeed, have worms in them. The more cited evidence sentences you provide, the stronger case you build for studying the problem.

Evidence from the Local Setting (Level 2 APA Heading)

One paragraph – Use local evidence, not evidence from the literature unless it is a study in the local context. Use personal communications, local test scores, or etc.)

The Gap in Practice (or the gap in the literature about practice) (Level 2 APA Heading)

One paragraph – Describe research from the past 2 to 3 years to discover what has been discovered about your problem and discuss what still needs to be researched or discovered. What do researchers say still needs to be researched or discovered?

Purpose Statement (1 – 2 paragraphs)

To address your stated research problem, what is the purpose of your study? Will you describe, compare, determine, explore, examine, etc.? Complete the purpose sentence below and be sure to clarify your variables/concepts of interest. Your purpose statement should reflect and align* to your problem statement.

Write this: “The purpose of this __________________[qualitative or quantitative] study is to ___________ _________________ _______________________[Replace this text with your response.]”

This statement should tell us the methodology, the population, and the geographic location if applicable. For this assignment, please choose either a qualitative or quantitative study. Next, finish the paragraph by telling us why such a study would be important. Include three citations to support your idea.

Theoretical or Conceptual Framework (1-2 paragraphs)

What theory(ies) and/or concept(s) support (frame) your study and who are the original author(s)? Provide an in-text citation with your response. Summarize the key propositions/constructs of the theory or concept. Please note that a conceptual framework aligns with a qualitative study, a theoretical framework only aligns with a quantitative study, and for a mixed method study it may be either or both depending on the design. For this assignment, please choose either a qualitative or quantitative study.

Follow this outline:

1. What is the theory or conceptual framework?

2. Why is it appropriate for the study?

3. How does it guide the purpose, data collection, and data analysis?

4. Review 1 or 2 recent education studies that used your framework.

Research Question(s)

List only 1 or 2 research question(s) that you plan to use to address your applied education problem. Your question(s) must be able to address the problem, align with your purpose statement, and be appropriate for the study approach. For a quantitative study, also note the corresponding hypotheses (null and alternative).


QN Relationship (Correlation) Boilerplate

RQ1: What is the relationship between **your first variable of interest** and **your second variable of interest** among **your population of interest**?

H01: There is no statistically significant difference between **variable 1** and **variable 2** among **the population of interest**.

Ha1: There is statistically significant difference between **variable 1** and **variable 2** among **population of interest**.

Boilerplate for QL research questions

RQ 1: How do **participants** perceive/understand/experience **central phenomenon**in a **research site**? Comment by Research: Choose the best verb for your study. The word perceive is most commonly used in QL research.

Methodology (1 – 2 paragraphs)

What systematic approach (qualitative or quantitative) and research design (basic qualitative, case study, quasi-experimental, correlational, etc.…) do you plan to use to address your research question(s)? Justify your choice of approach and design, with citations from the literature, and discuss how your methodology aligns to your problem, purpose, and research questions.

It is very important that the method fit the other components of the paper. The method must provide a valid answer to the RQ! Be specific, detailed, and precise. Explain how the chosen methodological design flows naturally from the problem, purpose, and questions. In other words, how is it aligned with the study? Review the guidance in the Prospectus Guide and the exemplar.

Possible Types and Sources of Information or Data

Present and explain the possible types and sources of data that could be used to address the proposed research question(s), such as test scores from college students, employee surveys, observations, and/or semistructured interviews with practitioners,

References

4

Bear in mind that the rubric & points for this assignment loosely follow the format of a capstone evaluation. This means that the four grades available, Novice, Emerging, Proficient, and Advanced, do NOT follow the traditional percentages of D, C, B, and A.  “Novice” is not a failing grade! Most of you are novices in academic writing and it would be normal for you to earn a novice grade on your very first writing assignment. Again, “Proficient” is not the equivalent of a B, it is higher than that. If you are writing proficiently, it would mean that you are on-track for doctoral success…probably this would be considered by most to be an A.  

To prepare:

· Review the required readings, media, and resources.

· Use your citation management software and Boolean logic, as you seek evidence from the literature that justifies pursuing this research problem.

· Download the Writing Assignment Template and Exemplar from the Week 2 course announcement.

By Day 7

To complete:

The Week 2 Assignment should be written in correct APA style and should include the following:

To Complete
In your prospectus document include:

· The working title

· Problem statement

· Three to five key citations that highlight the relevance and currency of the problem (these should be current—within the last 5 years)

·

· Evidence of the problem in the research literature (and locally, for the project study)

Use the template provided in the announcements, discussion board, and Doc Sharing!

Note that I often highlight the most important revisions needed in blue.

Novice

Emerging

Proficient

Advanced

Points

(10%)

Fulfills minimal expectations of the assignment. Key components are not included.

1.6 (16%)

Most parts of assignment are completed. Topics are not fully developed.

1.8 (18%)

All parts of the assignment are completed, with fully developed topics.

(20%)

Assignment exceeds expectations, integrating additional material, information, or both.

1.2

Adherence to Assignment Expectations

(10%)

Assignment demonstrates minimal understanding of the course or module’s criteria.

1.6 (16%)

Assignment demonstrates some understanding of the course or module’s criteria.

1.8 (18%)

Assignment demonstrates a clear understanding of the course or module’s criteria.

(20%)

Assignment demonstrates an exceptional understanding of the course or module’s criteria.

1.2

Assimilation and Synthesis of Ideas

(10%)

Shows a minimal understanding of the assignment’s purpose.

1.6 (16%)

Shows some degree of understanding of the assignment’s purpose.

1.8 (18%)

Demonstrates a clear understanding of the assignment’s purpose.

(20%)

Demonstrates a clear understanding of the assignment’s purpose as well as the intellectual ability to explore and implement key instructional concepts.

1.2

Assimilation and Synthesis of Ideas

(10%)

Does not include specific information from course videos or required readings.

1.6 (16%)

Minimally includes specific information from course videos or required readings.

1.8 (18%)

Includes specific information from course videos or required readings to support major points.

(20%)

Demonstrates exceptional inclusion of major points, using creditable sources, in addition to course videos or required readings.

1.2

Written Expression and Formatting

(10%)

The quality of writing, APA formatting, or both are minimally acceptable for advanced graduate level work. The writing has many grammatical or mechanical errors. (1 point) The writing includes some attempt to convey ideas, but they need to be expressed more clearly and concisely.

1.6 (16%)

Somewhat represents scholarly, advanced graduate-level writing. The writing shows more than a few grammatical or mechanical errors. Generally, follows APA style, but the elements of effective communication, such as an introduction and conclusion, are not included.

1.8 (18%)

Work is well organized and uses mostly correct APA formatting throughout with few, if any, grammatical or mechanical errors.. The elements of effective communication, such as an introduction and conclusion, are included.

(20%)

Work represents scholarly writing in correct APA format; effective sentence variety; and clear, concise, powerful expression. The entire piece is well organized and includes an introduction and conclusion.

1.2

Total Points: 10

6.0

Emerging New Technologies in Early Childhood Education

Lua Shanks

Doctor of E.D. Early Childhood Education

Walden University


Background Comment by Steve Wells: Audio Comments: https://share.vidyard.com/watch/nGef1gqJfhqb3Hdjx4337E?

The Early Childhood eEducation specialization is faced with many challenges ranging from inadequate teaching and learning resources, lack of government goodwill, and financial constraints to facilitate teaching operations. Dziuban et al. (2018) highlights highlighted several challenges faced by Childhood education. They argued that poor teaching programs and environments for ECDE teachers are hurdles facing early childhood education. A study conducted by Aydin et al. (2017) also revealeds that a high pupil-teacher ratio hinders the implementation of early childhood education. Therefore, there is a need to address these challenges to foster the effective implementation of childhood education. Comment by Steve Wells: You need to left justify your text. Learn how at
https://www.google.com/search?q=how+to+left+justify+in+word&rlz=1C1GCEB_enUS898US898&oq=how+to+left+justify+in+Word&aqs=chrome.0.0i512j0i22i30l9.6112j0j7&sourceid=chrome&ie=UTF-8
Comment by Steve Wells: Use past tense Use verb tenses consistently to help ensure smooth, logical expression (APA §4.12).
Past tense (researchers presented) or present perfect (researchers have presented) is appropriate for the literature review and the description of the procedure(s).
Use the past tense to describe the results.

Remember that you need to use proper APA style in these assignments. Comment by Steve Wells: Please go through the rest of your paper and address all other instances of this issue, even if I did not mark them. Comment by Steve Wells: This is too broad. What do you mean by technologies? Be far more specific and precise. Then provide 3 to 5 citations to show that the problem exists.

I think this vid might help you. Problem Statement Part 1
Comment by Steve Wells: Did you revise this? Did you view the vid I gave you here?

Problem Statementthe learners. The

Aydin et al. (2017) posited that the current generation is characterized by technophiles students who love playing video games from electronic gadgets (smartphones, iPods, or social networks. On the other hand, Huda et al. (2017) contend that the emerging technology is changing the view of education because early childhood students prefer learning from their devices, resulting in increased pressure from the government to facilitate a shift to instructions from teacher-to-learner-centered approaches. According to Aydin et al. (2017), educators love new technologies but lack the know-how to implement and impact learners’ lives and unlock their interests. Teachers face multiple challenges in using technology successfully, which prevent effective large-scale technology implementation. Teachers love using traditional approaches over new technology, but a shift to emerging technology is inevitable; thus, a responsive curriculum is needed to facilitate the change. Comment by Steve Wells: Could you please start the problem sentence with “The problem is _________” Comment by Steve Wells: Is this the problem? Can you narrow it and make it more understandable? What do you mean by “impact learners’ lives?” that is too broad/vague. What do you mean by “unlock their interests?” What do you mean by unlock? What interests are you referring to? Comment by Steve Wells: I don’t see a clear problem statement in this paragraph. What is your problem?

Evidence Comment by Steve Wells: Lua,
Please make an appointment with me. You are not following the template and it looks like you need help to understand how to form a problem statement.

I usually need at least 48 hours’ notice to set up an appointment. So, please follow these instructions.

Send 2-3 afternoon times when you can meet with me please include the time zone

Be sure that you can be at your computer with accessible internet, in a quiet place, with no interruptions (not in your car, a classroom with students, etc.)

Log-in at least 5 minutes early to get your microphone and speakers to work properly.

If you cannot make it for any reason, inform me in advance so I can help another student during that time. If you cannot inform me in advance, please explain your absence to me as soon as possible.

Studies Researchers that have evaluated vocabulary learning from video indicates that when children co-view a video with their parents or direct their attention to the video and talk about stories, there they? are likely to learn new vocabularies. There is less evidence to suggest word learning from video for children who are less than two years old (Samudra et al., 2019). Early research shows that video chats on a touch screen have yielded desirable results. Some studies show that mobile devices hold promise for children learning since they are interactive and apps can be tailored to meet each learner’s needs (Samudra et al., 2019). However, lack of technology alignment with curriculum and instruction remains a huge hindrance to technology adoption in childhood learning. Comment by Steve Wells: Cite them here. Comment by Steve Wells: Again, we don’t know what the problem is. Only state one problem clearly and concisely.
Is your problem something about video? Or is it about alignment with curriculum? Or is it about instruction? Be much more precise in your writing.

Gaps in Research Comment by Steve Wells: We do not want a gap in research in the EdD program, but a gap in practice.

Note for increased understanding: For both the EDD Dissertation and Project Study, the problem must be about a gap in practice as the EDD is an applied degree. A gap in practice is the difference between what is currently happening and what stakeholders would want to happen to achieve best practices.

Keep in mind that a gap in the research/knowledge is not, in and of itself, a reason to conduct research. The need to address an identified gap in practice must be clear, current, and relevant to the discipline and area of practice.

For an EDD Dissertation the gap in practice will be found within the research literature. If the EDD Dissertation collects data in a specific localized setting, evidence is needed to justify the use of the local setting. For a Project Study, the gap in practice is found within a local setting but it is also required to show that the problem is relevant and meaningful to the research literature found within the field/program specialization.

The deficit model of education negatively impacts early childhood education because it focuses on what the learners do not know instead of teachingrather than what they already know. Learners find it difficult to learn new things and ideas. “As a result, families are provided with isolated, decontextualized programs or activities which often add to their burden of responsibilities” (Aydin et al., 2017). The old model does not allow children to adequately interact with parents and instructors and experience events beyond early intervention programs. The emerging technology threatens the education industry, especially the interaction between students and educators. AnTherefore, the researchers have an overwhelming call for the researchers to dig deep into the matter and determine the technological impacts on the current education generation and models to link the indigenous knowledge base with the technological requirement and impact students is vital.

References

Aydin, H., Ozfidan, B., & Carothers, D. (2017). Meeting the challenges of curriculum and instruction in school settings in the United States. Journal of Social Studies Education Research8(3), 76-92.

Dziuban, C., Graham, C. R., Moskal, P. D., Norberg, A., & Sicilia, N. (2018). Blended learning: the new normal and emerging technologies. International journal of educational technology in Higher education15(1), 1-16.

Huda, M., Jasmi, K. A., Hehsan, A., Mustari, M. I., Shahrill, M., Basiron, B., & Gassama, S. K. (2017). Empowering children with adaptive technology skills: Careful engagement in the digital ınformation age. International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education9(3), 693-708.

Samudra, P. G., Flynn, R. M., & Wong, K. M. (2019). Coviewing Educational Media: Does Coviewing Help Low-Income Preschoolers Learn Auditory and Audiovisual Vocabulary Associations?. AERA Open, 5(2), 2332858419853238.

3

To Prepare

For this revision of your purpose and problem statements, apply what you have learned from the feedback you have received, as well as the information you have learned from the required readings, web resources, and media.

By Day 7

Submit your draft.

As in previous drafts, your paper should include the following:

· Substantiated statements using evidence from research
Note:
 Every statement must be substantiated by evidence from your research.

· One or two sentences that explain the purpose of your study
Note:
 Connect the problem being addressed to the focus of your study.

· Demonstration of a logical flow from the preliminary problem to this (narrower) tentative purpose in your study

· Explanation of what aspect of the problem your study address (In other words, what will it accomplish?)

Find and review three scholarly sources to support your purpose.

Your newest draft of your paper should be in APA style and follow the guidelines provided in the document, “APA Course Paper Template with Advice (7th ed.)” found in the Learning Resources.

Use the template provided in the announcements, discussion board, and Doc Sharing!

Note that I often highlight the most important revisions needed in blue.

Novice

Emerging

Proficient

Advanced

Points

(10%)

Fulfills minimal expectations of the assignment. Key components are not included.

1.6 (16%)

Most parts of assignment are completed. Topics are not fully developed.

1.8 (18%)

All parts of the assignment are completed, with fully developed topics.

(20%)

Assignment exceeds expectations, integrating additional material, information, or both.

1.4

Adherence to Assignment Expectations

(10%)

Assignment demonstrates minimal understanding of the course or module’s criteria.

1.6 (16%)

Assignment demonstrates some understanding of the course or module’s criteria.

1.8 (18%)

Assignment demonstrates a clear understanding of the course or module’s criteria.

(20%)

Assignment demonstrates an exceptional understanding of the course or module’s criteria.

1.4

Assimilation and Synthesis of Ideas

(10%)

Shows a minimal understanding of the assignment’s purpose.

1.6 (16%)

Shows some degree of understanding of the assignment’s purpose.

1.8 (18%)

Demonstrates a clear understanding of the assignment’s purpose.

(20%)

Demonstrates a clear understanding of the assignment’s purpose as well as the intellectual ability to explore and implement key instructional concepts.

1.4

Assimilation and Synthesis of Ideas

(10%)

Does not include specific information from course videos or required readings.

1.6 (16%)

Minimally includes specific information from course videos or required readings.

1.8 (18%)

Includes specific information from course videos or required readings to support major points.

(20%)

Demonstrates exceptional inclusion of major points, using creditable sources, in addition to course videos or required readings.

1.4

Written Expression and Formatting

(10%)

The quality of writing, APA formatting, or both are minimally acceptable for advanced graduate level work. The writing has many grammatical or mechanical errors. (1 point) The writing includes some attempt to convey ideas, but they need to be expressed more clearly and concisely.

1.6 (16%)

Somewhat represents scholarly, advanced graduate-level writing. The writing shows more than a few grammatical or mechanical errors. Generally, follows APA style, but the elements of effective communication, such as an introduction and conclusion, are not included.

1.8 (18%)

Work is well organized and uses mostly correct APA formatting throughout with few, if any, grammatical or mechanical errors. The elements of effective communication, such as an introduction and conclusion, are included.

(20%)

Work represents scholarly writing in correct APA format; effective sentence variety; and clear, concise, powerful expression. The entire piece is well organized and includes an introduction and conclusion.

1.0

Total Points: 10

6.6

Name: EDDD_8003_Week6_Assignment_Rubric

Emerging New Technologies in Early Childhood Education

Lua Shanks

Doctor of E.D. Early Childhood Education

Walden University


Emerging New Technologies in Early Childhood Education Comment by Steve Wells: Audio comments: https://share.vidyard.com/watch/gHifRiwzbC9Gb7XeR2cTfF?

Background

The Early Childhood Education specialization is faced with many challenges ranging from inadequate teaching and learning resources, lack of government goodwill, and financial constraints to facilitate teaching operations. Dziuban et al. (2018) highlighted several challenges faced by Childhood education. They argued that poor teaching programs and environments for ECDE teachers are hurdles facing early childhood education. Aydin et al. (2017) also revealed that a high pupil-teacher ratio hinders the implementation of early childhood education. Therefore, there is a need to address these challenges to foster the effective implementation of childhood education. Comment by Steve Wells: You need to left justify your text. Learn how at
https://www.google.com/search?q=how+to+left+justify+in+word&rlz=1C1GCEB_enUS898US898&oq=how+to+left+justify+in+Word&aqs=chrome.0.0i512j0i22i30l9.6112j0j7&sourceid=chrome&ie=UTF-8
Comment by Steve Wells: You still need to left justify the text in this paper. I am grading on this and all APA issues.

Problem Statement

Aydin et al. (2017) posited that the current generation is characterized by technophiles students who love playing video games from electronic gadgets (smartphones, iPods, or social networks. On the other hand, Huda et al. (2017) contend that the emerging technology is changing the view of education because early childhood students prefer learning from their devices, resulting in increased pressure from the government to facilitate a shift to instructions from teacher-to-learner-centered approaches. According to Aydin et al. (2017), educators are increasingly embracing new learning technologies but have low technical skills, which hamper their capacity to use the technologies. Teachers face multiple challenges in using technology successfully, which prevent effective large-scale technology implementation. Many studies only focus on technologies that support students’ learning and educational experience. As such, there is a scarcity of research that focuses specifically on technologies that can be used by teachers to facilitate successful delivery of instructions. Comment by Steve Wells: Could you please start the problem sentence with “The problem is _________” Comment by Steve Wells: You did not follow this instruction. Please do so. Comment by Steve Wells: I don’t think this material is helping you to state the research problem. What is the research problem? Comment by Steve Wells: Why do you believe this? You need to support this statement with evidence from peer-reviewed research lit. Do this in every paragraph, even if I do not mark it. 🙂

Evidence Comment by Steve Wells: Lua,
Please make an appointment with me. You are not following the template and it looks like you need help to understand how to form a problem statement.

I usually need at least 48 hours’ notice to set up an appointment. So, please follow these instructions.

Send 2-3 afternoon times when you can meet with me please include the time zone

Be sure that you can be at your computer with accessible internet, in a quiet place, with no interruptions (not in your car, a classroom with students, etc.)

Log-in at least 5 minutes early to get your microphone and speakers to work properly.

If you cannot make it for any reason, inform me in advance so I can help another student during that time. If you cannot inform me in advance, please explain your absence to me as soon as possible.
Comment by Steve Wells: You have not made an appointment with me. I would like to help you pass this class, please.

Researchers that have evaluated vocabulary learning from video indicates that when children co-view a video with their parents or direct their attention to the video and talk about stories, they? are likely to learn new vocabularies. There is less evidence to suggest word learning from video for children who are less than two years old (Samudra et al., 2019). Early research shows that video chats on a touch screen have yielded desirable results. Some studies show that mobile devices hold promise for children learning since they are interactive and apps can be tailored to meet each learner’s needs (Samudra et al., 2019). However, lack of technology alignment with curriculum and instruction remains a huge hindrance to technology adoption in childhood learning. Comment by Steve Wells: Again, we don’t know what the problem is. Only state one problem clearly and concisely.
Is your problem something about video? Or is it about alignment with curriculum? Or is it about instruction? Be much more precise in your writing.

Gaps in Research Comment by Steve Wells: We do not want a gap in research in the EdD program, but a gap in practice.

Note for increased understanding: For both the EDD Dissertation and Project Study, the problem must be about a gap in practice as the EDD is an applied degree. A gap in practice is the difference between what is currently happening and what stakeholders would want to happen to achieve best practices.

Keep in mind that a gap in the research/knowledge is not, in and of itself, a reason to conduct research. The need to address an identified gap in practice must be clear, current, and relevant to the discipline and area of practice.

For an EDD Dissertation the gap in practice will be found within the research literature. If the EDD Dissertation collects data in a specific localized setting, evidence is needed to justify the use of the local setting. For a Project Study, the gap in practice is found within a local setting but it is also required to show that the problem is relevant and meaningful to the research literature found within the field/program specialization.

The education sector continues to make significant investments to bring technologies to schools. However, such technological implementations are often more learner-centric than teacher-oriented. As a result, there exists a wide practice gap with respect to adoption of such technologies to deliver instructions in early childhood educational settings. The deficit model of education negatively impacts early childhood education because it focuses on what the learners do not know rather than what they already know. Learners find it difficult to learn new things and ideas. “As a result, families are provided with isolated, decontextualized programs or activities which often add to their burden of responsibilities” (Aydin et al., 2017). The old model does not allow children to adequately interact with parents and instructors and experience events beyond early intervention programs. The emerging technology threatens the education industry, especially the interaction between students and educators. Therefore, the researchers have an overwhelming call to dig deep into the matter and determine the technological impacts on the current education generation and models to link the indigenous knowledge base with the technological requirement.

Purpose Statement

The purpose of this study is to investigate the emerging new technologies in early childhood education settings. In line with this goal, the research will explore the technologies that are utilized by educators to impart knowledge to early childhood learners. Apart from teachers, this study will also examine emerging technologies used by early education students. These goals are founded on the idea that the adoption of learning technologies in early childhood education settings remains largely unexplored by researchers. Comment by Steve Wells: This does not align with the material in the problem statement paragraph. It is unclear what your research problem is, but this does not align with what you’ve written so far.

References

Aydin, H., Ozfidan, B., & Carothers, D. (2017). Meeting the challenges of curriculum and instruction in school settings in the United States. Journal of Social Studies Education Research8(3), 76-92.

Dziuban, C., Graham, C. R., Moskal, P. D., Norberg, A., & Sicilia, N. (2018). Blended learning: the new normal and emerging technologies. International journal of educational technology in Higher education15(1), 1-16.

Huda, M., Jasmi, K. A., Hehsan, A., Mustari, M. I., Shahrill, M., Basiron, B., & Gassama, S. K. (2017). Empowering children with adaptive technology skills: Careful engagement in the digital ınformation age. International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education9(3), 693-708.

Samudra, P. G., Flynn, R. M., & Wong, K. M. (2019). Coviewing Educational Media: Does Coviewing Help Low-Income Preschoolers Learn Auditory and Audiovisual Vocabulary Associations?. AERA Open, 5(2), 2332858419853238.

1

Further refine your paper to include a sample theoretical or conceptual framework and a sample research question. Include the following:

· Identify one theorist and theory.

· Explain the primary postulates of the theory and how they relate to your problem and purpose.

· Review two to three major research studies related to the framework and your study.

· Clearly explain how the theory or conceptual framework aligns with your problem, purpose, and research questions. What ties them together?

· Provide a research question.

By Day 7

To complete:

· Make revisions to your capstone  paper based on feedback.

· Include the sample framework and research question.

· Complete and submit this Assignment in complete APA style, following the “APA Course Paper Template With Advice (7th ed.)” document found in the Learning Resources.

Use the template provided in the announcements, discussion board, and Doc Sharing!

Note that I often highlight the most important revisions needed in blue.

Novice

Emerging

Proficient

Advanced

Points

(10%)

Fulfills minimal expectations of the assignment. Key components are not included.

1.6 (16%)

Most parts of assignment are completed. Topics are not fully developed.

1.8 (18%)

All parts of the assignment are completed, with fully developed topics.

(20%)

Assignment exceeds expectations, integrating additional material, information, or both.

1.4

Adherence to Assignment Expectations

(10%)

Assignment demonstrates minimal understanding of the course or module’s criteria.

1.6 (16%)

Assignment demonstrates some understanding of the course or module’s criteria.

1.8 (18%)

Assignment demonstrates a clear understanding of the course or module’s criteria.

(20%)

Assignment demonstrates an exceptional understanding of the course or module’s criteria.

1.4

Assimilation and Synthesis of Ideas

(10%)

Shows a minimal understanding of the assignment’s purpose.

1.6 (16%)

Shows some degree of understanding of the assignment’s purpose.

1.8 (18%)

Demonstrates a clear understanding of the assignment’s purpose.

(20%)

Demonstrates a clear understanding of the assignment’s purpose as well as the intellectual ability to explore and implement key instructional concepts.

1.4

Assimilation and Synthesis of Ideas

(10%)

Does not include specific information from course videos or required readings.

1.6 (16%)

Minimally includes specific information from course videos or required readings.

1.8 (18%)

Includes specific information from course videos or required readings to support major points.

(20%)

Demonstrates exceptional inclusion of major points, using creditable sources, in addition to course videos or required readings.

1.4

Written Expression and Formatting

(10%)

The quality of writing, APA formatting, or both are minimally acceptable for advanced graduate level work. The writing has many grammatical or mechanical errors. (1 point) The writing includes some attempt to convey ideas, but they need to be expressed more clearly and concisely.

1.6 (16%)

Somewhat represents scholarly, advanced graduate-level writing. The writing shows more than a few grammatical or mechanical errors. Generally, follows APA style, but the elements of effective communication, such as an introduction and conclusion, are not included.

1.8 (18%)

Work is well organized and uses mostly correct APA formatting throughout with few, if any, grammatical or mechanical errors. The elements of effective communication, such as an introduction and conclusion, are included.

(20%)

Work represents scholarly writing in correct APA format; effective sentence variety; and clear, concise, powerful expression. The entire piece is well organized and includes an introduction and conclusion.

1.4

Total Points: 10

Late Paper

-1

6.0

Emerging New Technologies in Early Childhood Education

Lua Shanks

Dr. Steve

E.D.D. 8013

Walden University


Emerging New Technologies in Early Childhood Education Comment by Steve Wells: Audio comments: https://share.vidyard.com/watch/t8sijtQxjs9j5GgDhuEEtH?

Background

The Early Childhood Education (ECE) practice is faced with many challenges ranging from inadequate teaching and learning resources, lack of government goodwill, to financial constraints to facilitate teaching operations. Dziuban et al. (2018) highlighted several challenges faced by Childhood education. The scholars argue that poor teaching programs and environments for ECDE teachers are among the hurdles facing early childhood education. Aydin et al. (2017) also established that a high pupil-teacher ratio hinders the implementation of early childhood education. Nonetheless, early childhood educators can improve the teaching-learning environment in Early Childhood Education by integrating audiovisual technologies in the teaching-learning setup.

Problem Statement

The problem is that many early year teachers in the current education sector do not have enough ICT equipment and expertise at their disposal to adequately deliver holistic instruction to early year learners. According to Aydin et al. (2017), educators are increasingly embracing new learning technologies but have poor technical skills, which hamper their capacity to use the technologies. For instance, far too many teachers in the education sector do not have the requisite phonics skills to teach early year learners how to read and spell words correctly (Dziuban et al., 2018). Consequently, too many children struggle to read and write effectively and eventually end up in the criminal justice system when education seems like a pointless endeavor to them. Comment by Steve Wells: No need to write consequences here, maybe in the purpose section “Increased understanding is important because ___________”

Research on emerging technologies in early ECE is replete with evidence that when children co-view a video with their parents or teachers and narrate stories, they learn new vocabularies better (Dziuban et al., 2018; Samudra et al., 2019). However, there is little evidence to suggest word learning from video is effective in teaching children who are less than two years old. Research shows that interactive video tutorials on touch-screen mobile devices improve the learning of vocabulary among ECE learners. Other studies show that interactive mobile devices improve ECE, and apps can be tailored to meet each learner’s needs (Dziuban et al., 2018; Samudra et al., 2019). Therefore, there is a discernible gap in practice about financing and selection of the most effective audiovisual technologies in content delivery in Early Childhood Education. Comment by Steve Wells: You’ve drafted away from your problem. The problem is lack of “equipment and expertise…” So, you need to show evidence that the schools lack equipment and expertise. Comment by Steve Wells: I didn’t see any evidence from the lit about financing being a problem.

Selection of the most effective tech is a different problem than what you stated above. See my last comment.

According to the template, you are missing a paragraph here about local evidence.

Gaps in Practice

The education sector continues to make significant investments to bring technologies to schools. However, such technological implementations are often more learner-centric than teacher-oriented. Additionally, there is an overreliance on computers as the newest technology being integrated in the ECE curriculum. Not only are computers expensive for many underprivileged students, but there areis other, more effective hi-tech equipment that can be used early years learners in the teaching-learning environment. For instance, word processing devices, talking books, and word banks are better than computers in teaching young children how to read and write. Moreover, teachers do not have sufficient equipment with which to monitor the progress of learners when they use these devices. However, research suggests that the use of web cams, interactive whiteboards, audio recorders, and other ICT tools can improve the learning experience for young children. Comment by Steve Wells: Need citation right here. Comment by Steve Wells: Need citation right here. Comment by Steve Wells: Need citation right here. Comment by Steve Wells: Need citation right here. Comment by Steve Wells: This paragraph does not align with the problem statement above.

Purpose Statement

The purpose of this study is to investigate the emerging newdetermine how best to integrate audiovisual technologies into ECE as well as possible ways to increase funding for ECE technology in the curriculum. In line with this goal, the research will explore the technologies used by educators to impart knowledge to early childhood learners. Apart from teachers’ ICT tools, this study will also examine audiovisual technologies used by early education students. The basis of this research is the idea that there is inadequate application of technology in the classroom which reduces the quality of learning in many ECE classrooms. Findings of this research will help improve the learning experience of early childhood learners by selection of the most appropriate audiovisual technologies to be used in ECE classrooms. Additionally, the study will suggest ways by which teachers can improve government goodwill towards blended learning to increase funding for technology in ECE. Comment by Steve Wells: I’m not saying that this is bad, just that it is not in alignment with your problem. If you want to study this, you need to re-write your problem and evidence for the problem.

Research Question

i. How best can various audiovisual equipment’s be used for blended learning for children under 10 years old in the State of California? Comment by Steve Wells: According to whom? Are you going to interview? If so, who will you interview.

Conceptual Framework

The social learning theory, which was originally developed by psychologist Albert Bandura emphasizes the significance of observation, replication of behaviors, attitudes, and feelings of others (Yılmaz, Yılmaz & Yılmaz, 2019). In principle, tThe social learning theory concurs with the postulates of the behavioral theory. For instance, both theories assert that there are mediating actions between stimuli and corresponding responses. Additionally, both the Social Learning Theory and the Behavioral Theory concur that animals learn behaviors from the environment by observing the actions of others (Yılmaz, Yılmaz & Yılmaz, 2019). These basic principles are relevant to the application of technology in ECE. In the teaching-learning environment, there exist stimuli that can be used in the learning process. Comment by Steve Wells: No first names, please. Comment by Steve Wells: Need date for Bandura primary reference here. Comment by Steve Wells: What behavior theory are you referring to. Give citation.

Bandura emphasizesd in the social learning theory that children observe the actions and behaviors of the people around them and assimilate them. In the well-known Bobo doll experiment, the psychologist assigned models to various children (Yılmaz, Yılmaz & Yılmaz, 2019). These models had certain behavioral characteristics that were to be replicated by the young children. The aim was for the kids to imitate and develop certain behaviors based on their observations. While developing his theory, Bandura believed that human beings are not passive learners, who automatically imitate behavior. There is a thought process involved and people can choose whether to imitate behaviors or not, based on a number of factors (Yılmaz, Yılmaz & Yılmaz, 2019). Thus, mental activity mediates observation and replication.

In the social learning theory, Bandura suggested four meditational stages between behavior observation and replication of behavior; attention, retention, replication, and, motivation (Yılmaz, Yılmaz & Yılmaz, 2019). An individual (in this case an early childhood leaner) has to first pay attention to the stimuli. Research is replete with evidence that young children pay higher levels of attention to the educational content when audiovisual teaching aids are used. Therefore, such findings suggest that emerging technologies will increase the attention span of ECE learners. Sustained attention in the teaching-learning environment improves the teaching-learning experience.

Another important postulate of the social learning theory is retention. When young children observe other people or inanimate objects such as mobile tablets, they remember their actions. However, since the behavior is mediated by a mental process, it may or may not be remembered. The application of interactive media makes the learning process more interesting for the learner, thus increasing the probability of retaining the content being delivered in the ECE classroom (Yılmaz, Yılmaz & Yılmaz, 2019). Even when there is short-term replication of the targeted behavior, there needs to be a memory to act as a point of reference in future.

The last two most important steps of the learning process in the social learning theory are reproduction of the desired behavior and motivation. In some instances, people can observe behaviors from others but fail to imitate them, despite repeated attempts to replicate them. For instance in teaching pronunciation, an ECE learner can use talking books in learning phonics but fail to pronounce the words correctly. This issue is even more prevalent among learners with special needs. Additionally, according to the social learning theory, for the behavior to be continually replicated, motivation is an important factor (Yılmaz, Yılmaz & Yılmaz, 2019). If the rewards of imitating an action outweigh its costs and consequences, the subject is more likely to replicate the behavior. The reverse is also true. Thus, all these mediating factors play a significant role in the learning process because they involve imitation and retention of behavior. Comment by Steve Wells: Please review the assignment directions and reduce this material down to about one paragraph.

Studies Relevant to the Theory

Research is replete with evidence which suggests blended learning is more effective as compared to traditional instructional methods. In his systematic review of the most prominent theories applicable to ECE, MacBlain (2018) identified Bandura’s social learning theories as one of the most influential theories in the practice. The scholar argues that children learn by imitating what they see or hear in their immediate environment. This assertion reinforces the idea that the increased audiovisual equipment in the learning environment will increase the attention span of learners. Additionally, since young learners consider electronic devices intriguing, there is better retention among learners who are exposed to emerging technologies, when compared to those who rely solely on the teacher’s input (MacBlain, 2018). Therefore, teachers should find ways to increase funding of ECE ICT projects, and select the most appropriate equipment for the teaching-learning process.

Other researchers such as Kontovourki et al. (2017) established that emergent literacy skills could significantly be boosted by increased exposure to digital media. The researchers argue that it is imperative for teachers to consider interactive video devices when instructing early childhood learners. Children retain the learned phonics better and spelled words more accurately when digital devices are used in the teaching-learning process (Kontovourki et al., 2017; MacBlain, 2018). Therefore, kids below the age of 10 should be seen as capable of learning using technology. Thus, teachers and other stakeholders in the education section should collaborate to integrate technology into ECE. The government is a major stakeholder and the apparent reluctance to integrate technology can be reduced by the constant research about the benefits on integrated learning. Comment by Steve Wells: Good, but reduce these two paragraphs to one. Delete about half of the material. Just follow the assignment directions.

References

Aydin, H., Ozfidan, B., & Carothers, D. (2017). Meeting the challenges of curriculum and instruction in school settings in the United States. Journal of Social Studies Education Research8(3), 76-92.

Dziuban, C., Graham, C. R., Moskal, P. D., Norberg, A., & Sicilia, N. (2018). Blended learning: the new normal and emerging technologies. International journal of educational technology in Higher education15(1), 1-16.

Huda, M., Jasmi, K. A., Hehsan, A., Mustari, M. I., Shahrill, M., Basiron, B., & Gassama, S. K. (2017). Empowering children with adaptive technology skills: Careful engagement in the digital ınformation age. International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education9(3), 693-708.

Kontovourki, S., Garoufallou, E., Ivarsson, L., Klein, M., Korkeamaki, R. L., Koutsomiha, D., … & Virkus, S. (2017). Digital literacy in the early years: Practices in formal settings, teacher education, and the role of informal learning spaces: A review of the literature.

MacBlain, S. (2018). Learning theories for early years practice. Sage.

Samudra, P. G., Flynn, R. M., & Wong, K. M. (2019). Coviewing Educational Media: Does Coviewing Help Low-Income Preschoolers Learn Auditory and Audiovisual Vocabulary Associations?. AERA Open, 5(2), 2332858419853238.

Yılmaz, M., Yılmaz, U., & Yılmaz, E. N. D. (2019). The relation between social learning and visual culture. International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education, 11(4), 421-427.

2

Bear in mind that the rubric & points for this assignment loosely follow the format of a capstone evaluation. This means that the four grades available, Novice, Emerging, Proficient, and Advanced, do NOT follow the traditional percentages of D, C, B, and A.  “Novice” is not a failing grade! Most of you are novices in academic writing and it would be normal for you to earn a novice grade on your very first writing assignment. Again, “Proficient” is not the equivalent of a B, it is higher than that. If you are writing proficiently, it would mean that you are on-track for doctoral success…probably this would be considered by most to be an A.  

To prepare:

· Review the required readings, media, and resources.

· Use your citation management software and Boolean logic, as you seek evidence from the literature that justifies pursuing this research problem.

· Download the Writing Assignment Template and Exemplar from the Week 2 course announcement.

By Day 7

To complete:

The Week 2 Assignment should be written in correct APA style and should include the following:

To Complete
In your prospectus document include:

· The working title

· Problem statement

· Three to five key citations that highlight the relevance and currency of the problem (these should be current—within the last 5 years)

· Evidence of the problem in the research literature (and locally, for the project study)

Use the template provided in the announcements, discussion board, and Doc Sharing!

Note that I often highlight the most important revisions needed in blue.

Novice

Emerging

Proficient

Advanced

Points

(10%)

Fulfills minimal expectations of the assignment. Key components are not included.

1.6 (16%)

Most parts of assignment are completed. Topics are not fully developed.

1.8 (18%)

All parts of the assignment are completed, with fully developed topics.

(20%)

Assignment exceeds expectations, integrating additional material, information, or both.

1.1

Adherence to Assignment Expectations

(10%)

Assignment demonstrates minimal understanding of the course or module’s criteria.

1.6 (16%)

Assignment demonstrates some understanding of the course or module’s criteria.

1.8 (18%)

Assignment demonstrates a clear understanding of the course or module’s criteria.

(20%)

Assignment demonstrates an exceptional understanding of the course or module’s criteria.

1.1

Assimilation and Synthesis of Ideas

(10%)

Shows a minimal understanding of the assignment’s purpose.

1.6 (16%)

Shows some degree of understanding of the assignment’s purpose.

1.8 (18%)

Demonstrates a clear understanding of the assignment’s purpose.

(20%)

Demonstrates a clear understanding of the assignment’s purpose as well as the intellectual ability to explore and implement key instructional concepts.

1.1

Assimilation and Synthesis of Ideas

(10%)

Does not include specific information from course videos or required readings.

1.6 (16%)

Minimally includes specific information from course videos or required readings.

1.8 (18%)

Includes specific information from course videos or required readings to support major points.

(20%)

Demonstrates exceptional inclusion of major points, using creditable sources, in addition to course videos or required readings.

1.1

Written Expression and Formatting

(10%)

The quality of writing, APA formatting, or both are minimally acceptable for advanced graduate level work. The writing has many grammatical or mechanical errors. (1 point) The writing includes some attempt to convey ideas, but they need to be expressed more clearly and concisely.

1.6 (16%)

Somewhat represents scholarly, advanced graduate-level writing. The writing shows more than a few grammatical or mechanical errors. Generally, follows APA style, but the elements of effective communication, such as an introduction and conclusion, are not included.

1.8 (18%)

Work is well organized and uses mostly correct APA formatting throughout with few, if any, grammatical or mechanical errors.. The elements of effective communication, such as an introduction and conclusion, are included.

(20%)

Work represents scholarly writing in correct APA format; effective sentence variety; and clear, concise, powerful expression. The entire piece is well organized and includes an introduction and conclusion.

1.1

Total Points: 10

5.5

Name: EDDD_8003_Week2_Assignment_Rubric

Research Problem Paper

Lua Shanks

Dr. Steve

09-10-2021

Problem Statement Comment by Steve Wells: Audio Comments:
https://share.vidyard.com/watch/ZLeV3ja7vwvqokcqdadgxJ?

Emerging New Technologies in Early Childhood Education

A problem statement communicates to individuals, businesses, and institutions about a current problem affecting operations. Early childhood educational specialization is prone to multiple issues, including inadequate teaching and learning resources, lack of government goodwill, and financial constraints to facilitate teaching operations. Poor teaching programs and environments for the ECDE teachers, poor remuneration, and high pupil-teacher ratio are among the challenges facing the implementation of early childhood education. Early childhood development literature evolves from the “first generation” research, which emphasized the pupils’ problems and challenges, and never focused much on the instructors and their specific roles and responsibilities. The traditional approaches failed to satisfy early childhood learners and teachers; thus, a permanent solution should be a priority for the education industry players. Traditional methods do not align with family goals and preferences, and the need for a modern approach for early childhood education is inevitable (Huda et al., 2017). Comment by Steve Wells: You can delete most of this.

Please follow the template that I provided. Please find it in the gradebook. No points deducted.

The problem is the emerging new technologies in early childhood education, presenting challenges to the learners. The current generation is characterized by technophiles students who love playing video games from their electronic gadgets (smartphones, iPods, or social networks). The emerging technology is changing the view of education because early childhood students prefer learning from their devices, resulting in increased pressure from the government to facilitate a shift to instructions from teacher-to-learner-centered approaches. Educators love new technologies but lack the know-how to implement and impact learners’ lives and unlock their interests. Teachers face multiple challenges in using technology successfully, which prevent effective large-scale technology implementation. Teachers love using traditional approaches over new technology, but a shift to emerging technology is inevitable; thus, a responsive curriculum is needed to facilitate the change. Comment by Steve Wells: This is too broad. What do you mean by technologies? Be far more specific and precise. Then provide 3 to 5 citations to show that the problem exists.

I think this vid might help you. Problem Statement Part 1
Comment by Steve Wells: Need citation here. Comment by Steve Wells: Need citation.
Only make assertions with support from the literature. Please review the following:
http://academicguides.waldenu.edu/writingcenter/writingprocess/logicalfallacies
https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/general_writing/academic_writing/logic_in_argumentative_writing/fallacies.html

The deficit model of education negatively impacts early childhood education because it focuses on what the learners do not know instead of teaching what they already know. Learners find it difficult to learn new things and ideas. “As a result, families are provided with isolated, decontextualized programs or activities which often add to their burden of responsibilities” (Aydin et al., 2017). The old model does not allow children to adequately interact with parents and instructors and experience events beyond early intervention programs. The emerging technology threatens the education industry, especially the interaction between students and educators. An overwhelming call for the researchers to dig deep into the matter and determine the technological impacts on the current education generation and models to link the indigenous knowledge base with the technological requirement and impact students is vital. Comment by Steve Wells: Thanks for the good effort, but please read the instructions for the assignment and use the template attached to the gradebook.

References

Aydin, H., Ozfidan, B., & Carothers, D. (2017). Meeting the challenges of curriculum and instruction in school settings in the United States. Journal of Social Studies Education Research8(3), 76-92.

Huda, M., Jasmi, K. A., Hehsan, A., Mustari, M. I., Shahrill, M., Basiron, B., & Gassama, S. K. (2017). Empowering children with adaptive technology skills: Careful engagement in the digital ınformation age. International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education9(3), 693-708.

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