Chat with us, powered by LiveChat The assignment for this module is to creat | Max paper
  

 The assignment for this module is to create a Graphic Organizer that synthesizes and conveys your understanding of the information presented in Module 4.  I have attached three sample Graphic Organizers in Module 4 related to different content for your review.   

External Environments of Schools

External Influences and Constituencies for

School Districts

Colleges and

Universities

Educational

Association

Accrediting

Agencies

Legislatures

Regulatory

Agencies

Unions

Taxpayers

Parents

School

District

Five Problematic Situations that might arise for

Administrators

Preferences

Regarding

Possible

Outcomes

Alternative

Courses of

Action and

their

Outcomes

Strategies

and Tactics

Potential

Outcomes

Lack of

Knowledge

Internal Coping Strategies

Internal

Coping

Strategies

Buffering Planning and

Forecasting

Boundary

Spanning

Influence Tactics of Interest Groups

Engaging the

Mass Media

Protesting

And

Demonstrating

Litigating Generating

Constituent

Influence

Contacting

legislators and

other officials

directly

Testifying at

legislative

hearings

Forming

Coalitions

Influence

Tactics of

Interest

Groups

Conformity and Institutional Environments

(Three Mechanisms that promote conformity)

Conformity and

Institutional

Environments

Coercive

Conformity

Imitative

Conformity

Normative

Conformity

Challenging Administrative Practices

Multiple

stakeholders

prefer different

effectiveness

criteria

Definitions of

what constitutes

organizational

effectiveness do

not remain

constant

Issues of

school

effectiveness

Challenging

Administrative

Practices

National Education Goals

Adult Literacy

and Lifelong

Learning

Parental

Participation

Teacher

Education and

Professional

Development

Student

Achievement

and

Citizenship

School

Completion

Ready to

Learn

Safe,

Disciplined,

and Alcohol

and Drug-Free

Schools

National

Education

Goals

Social Systems and School Effectiveness

Transformation

Processes

Academic

Achievement

Job

Satisfaction

Input-Output

Research

Performance

outcomes

Input

Criteria

School

Effectiveness

Orderly

Climate

Sense of

Community

Parental Support

and Environment

Staff
Development

Time

On

Task

Planned and

Purposeful

Curriculum

Staff

Stability

Clear Goals and

High Expectation

Instructional

Leadership

Effective

Schools

Smith and Purkey

The Drive for Accountability

Three underlying Principles

Schools

Schools Schools

Higher

Standards

Of

Performance

Assistance to

build

capacities for

improved

Education

Increased

Quality of

Performance

Outcomes

Accountability

Plans

Generally

Include:

Standards to

identify the

subject matter

knowledge and

skills to be

learned

Tests aligned with

the standards

Consequences to

recognize goal

attainment

Systematic

Comprehensive

School Reform

Promotes

Coherence

Reduces

Fragmentation

Aligns the state

accountability

system

Common Elements of Culture

Innovation

•The degree to which
employees are
expected to be
creative and take
risks

Stability

•The degree to which
activities focus on
the status quo
rather than change

Attention to
Detail

•The degree to which
ther is concern fo
rprecision and detail

Outcome
Orientation

•The degree to which
management
decisions ae
sensitive to
individuals.

People
Orientation

•The degree to wich
management

emphasizes results

Team
Orientation

•The degree of
emphasis on

collaboration and
teamwork

Aggressiveness

•The degree to which
employees are
expected to be

competitive rather
than easygoing

Aspects of Organizational Citizenship

The Clinical Strategy for Change

Gaining Knowledge of the
Organization

Diagnosis Prognosis

Prescription

Evaluation

A Growth-Centered Strategy for Change

Change is a property of
healthy school
organizations

Cjamge has direction

Change shoudld imply
progress

Teachers have high
potential for the

development and
implementation of change

The Norm-changing strategy for change

Identify
the surface

norms

Articulate
new

directions

Establish
new norms

Identify
culture

gaps

Close the
culture

gaps

Sources of Authority

Charismatic

• Rests on devotion to an extraordinary individual who is leader by virtue of personal trust or
exemplary qualities

Traditional

• Is anchored in an established beleif in the sanctity of the status of those exercising authority in the
past.

Legal
• I based on enacted laws that can be changed by formally correct procedures

Formal
• Is vested in the organization and is legally established in positions, rules, and regulations

Functional
• Has a variety of sources, including authority of competence and authority of person

Informal

• Is still another source of legitimate control stemming from personal behavior and attributes of
individuals

Sources of Power

Rewarding

• Influence
subordinates
by rewarding

their
desirable
behavior

Coercive

• Ability to
influence
subordinates
by punishing
them for
undesirable
behavior

Legitimate

• Ability to
influence the
behavior of
subordinates
simply
becuase of
formal
position

Referent

• Ability to
influence
behavior
based on
subordinates’
liking and
identificaiton
wi the
administrator

Expert

• Ability to
influence
subordinates
behavior on
the basis of
specialized
knowledge
and skill

Political Tactics

Ingratiating

• used to gain the goodwill of another through doing favors, being attentive, and giving favors

Networking

• The process of forming relationships wiht influential people

Information Management

• Individuals use to control others or build their own status

Impression Management

• A simple tactic that almost everyone uses from time to time to create a favorable image

Coalition Building

• The process of individuals banding together to achieve common goals

Scapegoating

• Blaming and attacking others when things go wrong or badly

Increasing Indispensability

• Tactic by which individuals or units make themselves necessary to the organization

Chapter 9: Decision Making in Schools (Hoy & Miskel)

Decision Theory

Basic Assumptions of the Satisficing Administrative Model

Identify the problem

Establish goals and objectives

Generate all possible alternatives

Consider the consequences of each alternative

evaluate alternatives in terms of goals and objectives

select the best alternative

implement and evaluate the alternative

Assumption
1

• Administrative decision making is a dynamic process that solves some
organizational problems and creates others

Assumption
2

• Complete rationality in decision making is impossible; therefore,
administrators seek to satisfice because they have neither the ability not
the cognitive capacity to optimize the decision-making process

Assumption
3

• Decision making is a general pattern of action found in the rational
administration of all major tasks and functional areas in organizations

Assumption
4

• Values are an integral part of decision making.

Decision
Making
Traps

Anchoring

Comfort

Overconfidence

Recognition

Representative

Sunk-Cost

Framing

Prudence

Memory

If uncertain, fractionalize decisions

Stagger your decisions

If uncertain, procrastinate

Be tentative; proceed with caution

Use focused trial and error

MIXED SCANNING MODEL

What is the organization’s mission and policy? What decisions will move the organization toward its mission and policy?

Contingency Model

Garbage Can Model: (does not begin with a problem and end with a solution)

Important?

Sufficient Time?

Sufficient
Information?

Yes/No

Yes/No

Yes/No Yes/No

Yes/No

Yes/No Yes/No

• occasions when choices
are expected to be made:
hiring/fire, money spent,
resources allocated…

• personnel are fluid

• problems and solutions
can change

• can exist independently
of problems

• attractiveness of an idea
can lead to a search for a
problem to justify the
idea

• problems may not lead to
solutions

• problems may not be
solved when a solution is
implemented

Problems Solutions

Choice
opportunities

Participants

Are the risks serious if I don’t change?
If no, change is unlikely

Are the risks serious if I do change?
If no, first popoular option likely to be accepted

Is it realistic to hope to find a better solution?
if no, avoidance of making a decision

Is there sufficient time to search and deliberate?
If no, possibility of seizing on first opportunity contrived solution
taht offers relief.

Vigilance (requires risk taking, determiniation, and engaging in
reflection and contigency planning)

Chapter 10: Shared Decision Making: Empowering Others (Hoy & Miskel)

Vroom Model of Shared Decision Making

•Quality Rule: use a unilateral approach to decision making only if…

•quality requirement is low and matter unimprotant to subbordinates

•quality requirement is low, the decision is important, and will be readily accepted by subbordinates

•Leader Information Rule: don’t make a unilateral decision if…

•quality of decision is important and you don’t possess sufficient information/expertise to solve the problem
alone

•Trust Rule: make unilateral decsions when…

•quality of the decision is important and can’t rust subbordinates to decide on the basis of organizational
goals

•Problem Structure Rule: involve knowledgeable subbordinates to collect relevent information when…

•quality of the decision is important, problem is unstructured, and you lack sufficient knowledge/expertise

Enhancing the QUALITY of decisions

•Acceptance Rule: involve subbordinates if…

•their acceptance is critical and you are unsure of their acceptance of an autocratic decision

•Subbordinate Conflict: involve subbordinates when…

•conflict among subbordinates, acceptance is critical, unlikely to accept autocratic decision

•Subbordinate Commitment Rule: a group decision should be made…

•acceptance is a critical problem even if the quality of decision is not important.

•Subbordinate Information Rule: subbordinates should not be called upon…

•to make decisions for which they have insufficient information or expertise

Enhancing the ACCEPTANCE of decisions

•Time Constraint (Motivation-Time): Time is often critical

•amount of time used is a cost expressed in terms of loss of attention to other activities

•Development Constraint (Motivation-Development): Subbordinates often don’t have the best knowledge to
contribute.

•to empower subbordinates is to give them skills and opportunities to make decisions

CONSTRAINTS on decision making

•Autocratic: leader makes decision using existing information

•Informed-Autocratic: leader solves the problem unilaterally after obtaining necessary information from
subbordinates

•Individual-Consultative: leader shares problem with subbordinates. solicits ideas, and makes decision that may
or may not reflect subbordinate influence

•Group-Consultative: leader shares problem with group, solicits ideas, and makes decision that may or may not
reflect influences form group

•Group-Agreement: leader shares problem with subbordinates as a group and generates/evaluates alternatives
as a group. Leader willingt oaccept the decision of the group

DECISION MAKING styles

Decision Making Tree stages:

Groupthink Map

1 • Quality

2 • Commitment

3 • Information

4 • Structure

5 • Acceptance

6 • Goal Congruence

7 • Conflict

8 • Information

* • Appropriate Decision Style

Group Characteristics

• strong cohesion

• insulation of group

• charasmatic leadership

• like-mindedness of group

• homogeny of group

• lack of norms for methodical procedures

Contextual Characteristics

• high stress from threat

• low self esteem by recent failures,
excessive complexity, moral dilemmas GROUPTHINK

Overestimation/Close-
Mindedness/Pressure for

Unanimity
Low Vigilance

High probablility of a defective
decision and Low Probablility of

Success

error: Content is protected !!